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WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 




■■■*- . -. 

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REMBRANDT AND HIS CIRCLE 



A LOAN EXHIBITION OF 
PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS AND 

ETCHINGS 



FEBRUARY 4-MARCH I, 1 93 6 



REMBRANDT 
AND HIS CIRCLE 

A LOAN EXHIBITION 

OF PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS 

AND ETCHINGS 

FEBRUARY 4-MARCH I, I936 



WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/rembrandthiscircOOworc 



Foreword 



THE ART of Rembrandt van Rijn and of those who painted in 
intimate association with him has never before been shown to 
the New England public in a comprehensive exhibition. The 
Trustees, therefore, welcome the opportunity to present during 
February this representative and magnificent collection of paint- 
ings, drawings, and etchings. To the Director of the Art Institute 
of Chicago, Dr. Robert B. Harshe, who has so generously permitted 
the Worcester Art Museum to collaborate with him in bringing to 
this country the works of art lent by the Dutch and the French 
Governments, the Trustees wish to express their deepest apprecia- 
tion as well as to his Associate Curator, Mr. Daniel Catton Rich, who 
has furnished the basic material and splendid introduction for this 
catalogue. Similarly, to Dr. Schmidt-Degener, Director of the Ryks- 
museum in Amsterdam, Monsieur Henri Verne, Director of the 
Musees Nationaux de France, Monsieur Paul Jamot, Curator of 
Paintings at the Louvre, as well as to the trustees and directors of 
American museums, and to the private collectors who have assisted 
in the formation of the exhibition, we extend our warmest thanks. 

Whereas the list of school pictures and of the Rembrandt draw- 
ings is practically identical with that shown in the January ex- 
hibition in Chicago, there have been certain important substitutions 
and additions in the group of paintings by Rembrandt himself, 
including the celebrated Joseph and Potiphaf s Wife, formerly in the 
Imperial Collection of the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg, and the 
Aristotle with the Bust of Homer, commissioned by the Marquis 
Antonio Ruffo of Messina in 1653- Two extremely important pic- 
tures are lent from New England collections, the Portrait of Elizabeth 
van Rijn, formerly in the gallery of Prince Lichtenstein in Vienna, 
now belonging to Mr. Robert Treat Paine II of Boston, and Gov- 
ernor Fuller's beautiful late Portrait of a Gentleman. 

The graphic section of the exhibition has been augmented by a 
group of drawings lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lessing J. Rosenwald, and 
the sixty-seven etchings by Rembrandt that are shown are all 
from Mr. Rosenwald 's superb collection. 

February 4, 1936 Francis Henry Taylor 

Director 



[ 5 ] 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago 

Mr. Joseph L. Buttenweiser, New York 

The City Art Museum, St. Louis 

Duveen Brothers, New York 

The Honorable Alvan T. Fuller, Boston 

The Trustee of the John G. Johnson Collection, Philadelphia 

M. Knoedler and Co., New York 

The Louvre Museum, Paris 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis 

The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York 

The Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence 

The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

Mr. Robert Treat Paine II, Boston 

Mr. Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia 

The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam 

Jacques Seligmann and Company, Inc., New York 

Mr. Chester D. Tripp, Chicago 

The T. B. Walker Collection, Minneapolis 

Mrs. Paul M. Warburg, New York 

Mr. Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania 

Wildenstein and Company, Inc., New York 



The assistance of the following Libraries in lending books which 
aided in the preparation of the catalogue is gratefully acknowledged : 
The Chicago Public Library, The Detroit Institute of Arts, The Fogg 
Art Museum Library, Harvard College Library, The Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C, The Pierpont Morgan Library, New 
York and The University of Chicago Libraries. 

Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. W. R. Valentiner, Detroit, 
for suggestions regarding paintings by Rembrandt followers in 
American collections and to Mr. Paul J. Sachs of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, for the loan of an important volume on Rembrandt draw T - 
ings. 

[6] 



REMBRANDT AS A TEACHER 



; ':''' >:. ; 




THE great masters are seldom 
the great teachers. Too ex- 
clusively concerned with their 
own creative problems they 
generally lack the time and 
interest to give to the minor 
problems of pupils, and when 
they do attract lesser personali- 
ties to their studios often end 
by making abject copyists of 
them. The case of Rubens is 
typical. For one genius like 
Van Dyck he produced a com- 
pany of assistants who aped 
the manner of his painting 
with a surface perfection until 
today in the large decorations 
we find it impossible to sepa- 
rate creator from imitator. But 
with Rembrandt a somewhat 
different state of affairs pre- 
vailed. The very fact that we 
are able, some three centuries 
later, to bring together an ex- 
hibit in which works by the 
master, in painting, drawing, 
and etching, can be hung side 
by side with known works by his most talented students, shows that 
Rembrandt was able not only to instruct artists in his technical 
methods, but that he found it possible to inspire them, momentarily 
at least, with something of his own creative attitude. 

Nevertheless the question of Rembrandt's relation to his school 
is one of the most confused and perplexing in the whole history of 
art. So intimately do his pupils reflect the master's point of view, 
that many of their works are still merged into the large and varied 
body of his art and are only now being identified. But if the main 
tendency of nineteenth century criticism was to enlarge the output 
of Rembrandt at the expense of his followers, an opposite tendency 
is alive today. In the researches of Gustav Falck and the later studies 
of Dr. Bredius and Dr. Valentiner, as well as in the X-ray investiga- 
tions of Alan Burroughs and the scientific scrutiny of pigments by 
A. P. Laurie, we discover not only a refreshing skepticism towards 
traditional attribution but a new enthusiasm for rescuing the lost 
artistic personalities of Rembrandt's circle. The difficulties have been 
aggravated by the master's rising fame and commercial value. Most 
of the paintings by pupils in the present exhibit have at one time 
or another been sold as originals, sometimes at exceedingly high 

[7] 



The Art Institute of Chicago 
(The Charles Deering Collection^) 

MAN DRAWING FROM A CAST BY CAN- 
DLELIGHT, ETCHING BY REMBRANDT. 



prices. Even in the seventeenth century art dealers were not above 
substituting copies and ever since have been casually erasing minor 
names and adding spurious Rembrandt signatures. In addition the 
rule of the Dutch Guild, whereby an artist was allowed to sell and 
even to sign work done by apprentices in the studio, has vastly com- 
plicated the problem. 

Rembrandt was one of the most celebrated teachers of his day and 
during the four decades of his career may have instructed as many as 
seventy young artists, a number 1 of whom became famous in their 
own right. Houbraken in his Groote Schouburgh (1718-1721) 2 relates 
that soon after Rembrandt came to Amsterdam he rented a ware- 
house loft on the Bloemengracht where he arranged his pupils in 
individual cubicles shut off from one another by packing paper or 
sailcloth where they could draw from life, and Sandrart who knew 
the artist from about 1637-42 tells in his Teutsche Academie (1675-9) 
that the house was "constantly filled with almost innumerable 
youngsters who had come to be taught by him while serving their 
apprenticeships." Probably most of these boys had already studied 
with some lesser drawing master and came to work with Rembrandt 
for a period of at least three years to learn the rudiments of painting 
and etching. Only by serving a term with a recognized teacher and 
afterwards submitting examples of skilled workmanship could they 
become Free Masters of the Guild and sign and sell their pictures. 
Sandrart records that each of them paid him vearly one hundred 
florins out of which he probably fed and housed them. During this 
interval Rembrandt was permitted to market their work to his own 
advantage and Sandrart adds that apart from their apprentice fees 
he made from two thousand to two thousand five hundred guilders 
a year by the sale of their paintings. 3 

From a number of sources we have a fairly clear picture of how the 
young pupil progressed in Rembrandt's studio. He began by perform- 
ing the menial tasks, grinding color, making and cleaning brushes 
and laying palettes. He was soon set at drawing from plaster casts 
(see Rembrandt's etching of c.1641 "Man Drawing from a Cast by 
Candlelight," [H. 191]) and may also have worked from the ana- 

x See the list compiled by Otto Benesch and published here on pages 48 and 49. 

2 For the details of Rembrandt's teaching, both those contained in literary sources 
and those derived from a study of the works, I am indebted to the following: H. 
Floerke, Studien %_ur niederldndischen Kunst- und Kulturgescbicbte; Die Formen des Kunst- 
handels, das Atelier, und die Sammler, Munich and Leipzig, 1905; W. Martin, "The Life 
of a Dutch Artist in the Seventeenth Century," Burlington Magazine, VII (1905) - 
XI (1907); C Hofstede de Groot, "Rembrandt's Onderwijs aan zijne leerlinge" 
Feest-Bundel, Dr. Abraham Bredius aangeboden den Achttienden April, 191;, Amsterdam, 
1915, 1, pp. 79-94, II, Pis. 16-40 (kindly translated from the Dutch for me by Mr. G. E. 
Kaltenbach), pp. 79-94, and especially A. M. Hind, Rembrandt, Lond., 1932, pp. 20-42. 

3 Hofstede de Groot, supra, doubts this astonishingly large sum and quotes a note in 
Rembrandt's handwriting found on the back of a drawing of "Susanna at the Bath" 
in the Berlin Print Room to the effect that he sold a pupil's "Standard Bearer" for 
fls. 15, a "Flora" for fls. 4.6 and a "Flora" by L. C. van Beyeren for fls. 5- (This must 
have been about 1635-7. See Hofstede de Groot, Die Urkunden uber Rembrandt, The 
Hague, 1906, No. 39). 

[3] 



tomical "lay figure." Next perhaps he was told to reproduce in 
sanguine, charcoal, or ink certain examples of the master's work, 
not only in drawing but in etching and even painting. Maes made a 
sketch of Rembrandt's "Holy Family" 4 in Cassel and in the present 
exhibition there is a drawing attributed to Bol (No. 46) which must 
have been copied from the painted "Self Portrait" (1640) by Rem- 
brandt now in London. This practice helps to explain why there are 
in existence so many Rembrandtesque sketches of the same subject 
treated in an almost identical manner. Often these may be connected 
with an original drawing by Rembrandt but in other cases the 
master's sheet is lost and we know the composition only through 
copies by industrious students. 5 

After the pupil had learned Rembrandt's way of managing a pen 
line and laying a wash, he was encouraged to work direct from 
the nude. A fascinating drawing in Weimar 6 shows the master 
surrounded by pupils, all engaged in sketching from the same stand- 
ing model. Surely this custom explains the groups and pairs of draw- 
ings where we find a nude man or woman rendered in identical pose 
but from slightly different angles. 7 In such a case one drawing is 
doubtless by Rembrandt and the others by students. 

The procedure so far was strictly imitative but as the apprentice 
advanced we find Rembrandt forcing more independence upon him. 
The next step — and this is significant if we are to understand Rem- 
brandt's success as a teacher — was for the pupil to translate with 
considerable freedom the theme of some composition by the master. 
For example Maes redrew the motif of "God Appearing to Abra- 
ham," inventing, as it were, a new arrangement in the Rembrandt 
manner. 8 We know that the master carefully scrutinized and cor- 
rected sketches of this sort, sometimes working over the pupil's 
more hesitating and tentative draughtsmanship with his own slash- 
ing pen strokes and vigorous wash, 9 or if the drawing were too weak 
in parts, he might paste on new bits of paper and make fresh cor- 
rections. 10 

4 British Museum (A. M. Hind, Catalogue of Drawings by Dutch and Flemish Artists, I, 
Lond., 1915, Maes, No. 5). 

5 In certain of these drawings under the pen strokes will be found guide lines in 
black pencil or crayon. Compare the entry in the Inventory of Rembrandt's posses- 
sions made in 1656, "No. 275- Several packages of sketches, some by Rembrandt, 
some by others." (C. Hofstede de Groot, Urkunden, No. 169.) 

6 By a pupil, perhaps by Samuel van Hoogstraten, as Valentiner {Art in America, 
XVIII [1930], 137-8) has recently suggested. 

7 For instance, 1. "Nude Man, Standing," Albertina, Vienna (H. de Groot, Hand., 
No. 1463). 2. The same subject, British Museum (H. de Groot, Hand., No. 933- 
3. The same, Louvre (H. de Groot, Hand., No. 746). 

8 The drawing by Rembrandt is in the Albertina, Vienna (H. de Groot, Hand., No. 
1345); the example by Maes in the British Museum. 

9 See "The Annunciation" (H. de Groot, No. 47) in Berlin, attributed by Falck to 
Constantijn Renesse, where to quote Hind, "the stumpy and carefully drawn angel of 
the original drawing has been transformed by a few bold lines into a taller figure of 
great dignity." 

10 See the drawing of "The Triumph of Mordecai" (H. de Groot, Hand., No. 598) 
in the Louvre, where this has been done. 

[9] 




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77><? CV/7 /4t* Museum, Weimar 

REMBRANDT SCHOOL (POSSIBLY SAMUEL VAN HOOGSTRATEn), " REM- 
BRANDT AND HIS PUPILS SKETCHING FROM THE MODEL." 

We have an amusing case of a written criticism on a school draw- 
ing belonging to E. C. Spencer Churchill of Northwick Park. The 
subject is "The Leave-Taking of Rebecca" and underneath in Rem- 
brandt's hand appear these words: "The scene should be arranged 
with many neighbors watching the distinguished bride depart." 
(Hind translation.) 

The same steps seem to have prevailed in learning to paint. The 
immature student made exact copies of the artist's pictures; one of 
these is probably preserved in the "Raising of Lazarus" (Art In- 
stitute, Chicago) which repeats almost stroke for stroke a stronger 
version in Amsterdam. The best copies were painted over in part 
by Rembrandt and sold, occasionally with a note added to his sig- 
nature that he had retouched them. 11 The advanced student was 
allowed to paint from the same models as the master and to work at 
the same composition on which he was then engaged. The picture 
by Govaert Flinck of "Isaac Blessing Jacob" (No. 17) repeats a very 
familiar motif from the Rembrandt studio of the late thirties on 
which works by Horst, Eeckhout and other pupils are clearly based, 
and we have for comparison Rembrandt's own version formerly in 
the collection of the Earl of Brownlow. 



n "The Sacrifice of Isaac" in Munich which is a school repetirion with changes of 
the Hermitage original is signed: "Rembrandt retouched and painted it over in 1636." 
Later, however, he seems to have been less scrupulous; the Dresden "Entombment," 
signed and dated by Rembrandt in 1653 is an obvious replica by a pupil of the master's 
composition of 1639 (now in Munich), painted for Prince Frederick Henry of Orange 
There are a number of entries in the 1656 Inventory referring to works retouched by 
Rembrandt. 

[ 10] 



A painting like the imposing "Adulteress before Christ" (No. 13) 
seems to represent a further stage of workshop practice. Here we 
have no similar painted treatment of the subject by Rembrandt, for 
the National Gallery picture of 1644 shows small full-length figures 
in an arrangement of great space, but if Dr. Valentiner is correct in 
his suggestion, we have an assistant, probably Barent Fabritius, here 
developing a new design carefully based on drawings and studies by 
the master. "When Rembrandt had treated a problem of composition 
sufficiently in drawings he occasionally left the transcription of it 
into a large picture to pupils," 12 writes Dr. Valentiner and goes 
further, believing that he can identify Rembrandt's retouches in the 
head and hand of the bearded Pharisee. 

Such a picture shows us how completely Rembrandt's conception 
and technique permeated the personalities of his assistants. The final 
step in which we find the artists who worked under him improvising 
on his motifs and adding their own variations may be illustrated 
here by three paintings. In Ferdinand Bol's attractive portrait of 
"Saskia" (No. 11) we have practically a borrowing of Rembrandt's 
own painting in Cassel of his wife. The debt has been somewhat dis- 
guised; in Bol's picture Saskia does not wear the large hat, and the 
figure is cut off and inserted into a window frame, but, nevertheless, 
the careful lighting and modeling of the features and even the pose 
of one of the hands have been carried over to be interpreted in Bol's 
softer and thinner technique. Rembrandt's subtle and exquisitely 
balanced "Young Girl at an Open Half-Door" (No. 4) started a whole 
train of imitations; we see one of them in Barent Fabritius' "Girl 
Plucking a Fowl" (No. 14) where the artist, by joining this motif 
to another Rembrandt motif of an old woman plucking a hen, has 
managed to make a new picture out of previous material. Similarly 
Arent de Gelder's richly colored "Portrait of a Girl" (No. 18) ob- 
viously relies on Rembrandt's "Portrait of a Woman" (1666) in the 
National Gallery, although again certain shifts and transpositions 
of design serve to hide the fact. 13 

Paintings like this bring us to the question of how these pupils 
managed to learn so much of Rembrandt that they were able to 
paint, draw and etch works which have frequently been confused 
and defended as his? How did they advance from servile copying to 
that later stage where they seem competent to create at least second- 
ary works in his vein? Far more usual is the result that we find in 
the pupils of Gerard Dou, who, when they imitate their master, 
concentrate wholly on his slick, glassy surfaces, his mannerisms of 
color and drawing, producing pictures that are in no sense serious 
rivals of his own. 

l2 The Art Bulletin, XIV (1932), 228. 

13 Sometimes pupils utilized Rembrandt drawings as the basis for their more personal 
work. Karel van der Pluym in ' Tobit and his Wife with the Goat' ' probably consulted 
Rembrandt's drawing of the same subject here exhibited (No. 35). Samuel van 
Hoogstraten made a painting from his drawing of "The Unbelieving Thomas" 
(No. 51) which Dr. Valentiner believes may be traced to some lost drawing by the 
master. 

[ ii ] 



The answer may be found, seemingly, in the peculiar quality of 
Rembrandt as a teacher. We know that he was a conscientious in- 
structor; in his "art loft" in the Bloemengracht he is said to have 
visited each booth in turn, giving criticism, and we realize from the 
corrected drawings that he spent some time pointing out weaknesses 
and deficiencies. But beyond this, I think we can say that Rem- 
brandt's academy, for all its copying, was in many ways un-academic. 
Though trained in a strict atelier himself, Rembrandt by the time he 
became a teacher had discovered that art was far more than the 
imitation of classical models. Sandrart makes him a rebel, "who 
combatted the usual rules of art, rejected the aids of anatomy, the 
theory of human proportions, perspective, and the use of antique 
sculpture; threw over Raphael's method of drawing, and inveighed 
against the academies so necessary to our profession, declaring that 
the artist should follow no other rules but nature, despising rules in 
respect of his treatment of contour, light and shade, which he han- 
dled entirely to suit the emphasis of his subject." (Hind translation.) 

Rembrandt's life-long search for a broader and more powerful 
expression made him impatient in his own teaching of technical 
tricks and recipes. He sent his apprentices out in the streets to ob- 
serve what was going on; Maes has left pages, either drawn on the 
spot or immediately afterward from memory, which show beggars 
and figures from the crowd. The pupils sketched in the fields or 
villages, a practice Eeckhout depicts in his charming drawing (No. 
48), "The Artist before a Peasant House." In the studio they were 
constantly in touch with a master who grew to care less and less for 
the outward conventions of art and more for its inner force, a master 
who experimented unceasingly to endow his forms with greater 
emotion and at the same time fuse them into a stronger design. Is it 
any wonder that the most talented of his pupils came under his spell 
and for a few years identified themselves so closely with him that 
they produced not so much Flincks, de Gelders and Hoogstratens 
as lesser Rembrandts? In the history of art there are few cases where 
a master so completely dictated not only the technique of his pupils, 
but their very processes of mind. 

It was while in the studio, or directly afterwards, that the mem- 
bers of Rembrandt's circle usually did their strongest work. In the 
present exhibit we have concentrated on showing those examples 
which come closest to the master, for after the apprenticeship was 
through and the effects of his teaching had worn off we find most of 
them automatically seeking a lower and more popular level. We 
must not forget that Rembrandt's art was not only highly personal; 
as he advanced, it became less intelligible and found less favor with 
the public. Protestant Holland of the seventeeth century cared little 
for religious themes, naturally preferring scenes from every day life 
in which they could recognize themselves. Dr. Valentiner has pointed 
out that this lapse into genre is characteristic of many of the best 
pupils who "had sufficient self-criticism to recognize that their in- 
tellectual and spiritual endowment was not great enough to give a 

[ 12 ] 



higher inspiration" to their work. 14 We can see Maes softening 
Rembrandt's vigorous realism into the picture of sentiment of which 
"An Old Woman at Prayer" (No. 22) is a characteristic example. 
Barent Fabritius, obeying the same impulse, turns the vivid com- 
position of Rembrandt's drawing of "Satyr and the Peasant" (No. 
27) into an attractive Dutch interior of the period (No. 15). 

Others like Rembrandt's brilliant young collaborator, Lievens, 
come under the grandiose spell of Baroque composition as modified 
by Rubens and the Flemish school, while Bol and Maes in their 
later portraits reflect the newer artificialities and elegance of the 
French court style. Only one of Rembrandt's pupils developed into 
a true master. This was Carel Fabritius, unfortunately not repre- 
sented in the exhibition, for none of his rare works is found in 
America and the most significant could not be borrowed from Europe. 
But alone Carel was able to build upon what he had learned in the 
studio, joining to the rich subtleties of Rembrandt's chiaroscuro a 
feeling for lighter tone and color used architectonically, which was 
to reach its highest development in Carel's own pupil, Vermeer. 

In various other ways, however, Rembrandt's example continued 
to operate even with those artists who seemed to have broken most 
decisively with his idea. Their borrowings persist, hidden under 
smoother pigment or buried in the enlarged arabesque of some official 
decoration. Backer and Bol return to Rembrandt drawings for their 
compositions. 15 Bol plagiarizes a Rembrandt portrait 16 in a far lesser 
portrait of his own. In general we observe the followers diluting 
the original contribution of the master, making it palatable and 
easy for the public to understand. 17 And during Rembrandt's later 
life, when contemporaries failed to comprehend the radical character 
of his art, the works of Flinck, Bol, and Maes were frequently praised 
above his own. 

In a sense only one artist remained the completely faithful pupil: 
Arent de Gelder, who worked with Rembrandt during the strange, 
exciting period of the sixties and who stayed with him until his 
death, continued to paint in the master's manner, and even when 
de Gelder's canvases grow lighter, anticipating in their rhythmic 
brushwork and gayer color the next age of the Rococo, we still 
feel behind them something of Rembrandt's amazing command over 
pigment and a trace of the largeness of his final conception. 

Daniel Catton Rich . 

u The Art Bulletin, XIV (1932), 217. 

15 See C. Hofstede de Groot, Bredius-Bundel , Pis. 15-20. 

""Portrait of a Man," today in the Widener Coll. (Valentiner, 484). The Maes is 
"The Portrait of a Young Man in a Hat" in the Hermitage. 

17 Thus in the "Fete of the Civic Guard on the Occasion of the Peace of Munster" 
(1648) we find Flinck pastiching Rembrandt's much criticized "Night Watch" of 
1642. Both pictures are today in the Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 



[ 13] 




5- REMBRANDT 



CHRIST AT EMMAUS 



Museum of the Louvre, Paris 



[ 14] 



CATALOGUE 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

In sizes height always precedes width. 

Under many of the entries in the catalogue will be found the following: 

Coll. : (which refers to collections through which the work has passed.) 

Exh.: (which refers to exhibitions in which the work has been seen.) 

Lit. : (which refers to books and periodicals where the work has been published.) 

In the literary references the following abbreviations have been employed: 
B. 

A. Bartsch, Catalogue Raisonne . . . des Estampes de Rembrandt, I-II, Vienna, 1797 
Bode 

W. Bode, The Complete Work of Rembrandt (tr. by Florence Simmonds), I- VIII, 

1897-1906 

Bull. 

Bulletin of The Art Institute of Chicago, I (1907)-XXIX (1935). 
Dut. 

M. E. Dutuit, Manuel de U Amateur d'Estampes, IV-V, Paris, 1881-2 
H. 

A. M. Hind, Rembrandt's Etchings, I-II, Lond., 1923 

Hind, R., 

A. M. Hind, Rembrandt, Lond., 1932 

H. de Groot 

C. Hofstede de Groot, Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of the Dutch Painters of the 
Seventeenth Century (Tr . and ed. by Edwin G. Hawke), VI (Rembrandt and Nicolaes 
Maes), 1916 

H. de Groot, Hand. 

C. Hofstede de Groot, Die Hand^eichnungen Rembrandts. Versuch eines beschreibenden 
und kritischen Katalogs, 1906 

Lilienfeld 

K. Lilienfeld, Rembrandts Handxeichnungen , I (Rijksprentenkabinet zu Amsterdam), 
1923 

Lippmann, Lippmann-Hofstede de Groot 

Handzeichnungeti von Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (edited first by F. Lippmann, 
then by Lippmann and C. Hofstede de Groot, and finally by Hofstede de Groot 
alone). Series I-IV, 1888-1911 

Moes, Drawings in Amsterdam 

E. W. Moes, Original Drawings of the Dutch and Flemish School in the Printroom of 
the State-Museum at Amsterdam, The Hague, n.d. 

Murray-Morgan 

Collection, J. Pierpont Morgan, Drawings by the Old Masters formed by C. Fairfax Mur- 
ray, Lond., n.d. 

Rovinski 

D. Rovinski, L'Oeuvre Grave des Eleves de Rembrandt, Text and Atlas (I-II), St. 
Petersburg, 1894 

Smith 

John Smith, Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of Dutch, Elemish and French Painters, 

VII, Lond., 1836 
Valentiner 

W. R. Valentiner, Rembrandt, Des Meisters Gemdlde in 643 Abbildungen (Klassiker 

der Kunst), Stuttgart and Leipzig, 3rd ed., 1908 
Valentiner, II 

W. R. Valentiner, Rembrandt, Wie der gefun dene Gemdlde (Klassiker der Kunst), 

Stuttgart and Berlin, 1921 
Valentiner, Hand., I and Hand., II 

W. R. Valentiner, Die Handzeichnungen Rembrandts, New York, I, 1925, II, 1934 
Valentiner, Rembrandt Paintings 

W. R. Valentiner, Rembrandt Paintings in America, New York, 1931 

[ 16] 



TAINTINGS 

REMBRANDT VAN RUN 

BORN, Leyden, 1606. Died, Amsterdam, 1669. Son of a miller. In 
1620 enrolled in the University of Leyden. Taught painting by 
Jacob Isaaksz. van Swanenburch. Spent one half year with Peter 
Lastman in Amsterdam where he came in touch with Italianizing in- 
fluences; also worked with Jakob Pynas, whose sincere, psychologi- 
cal and expressive art turned him towards Biblical subjects and com- 
mon humanity. First dated picture, 1626. In 1628 with Gerard Dou. 
Soon afterwards took a studio with Jan Lievens. 1632, received com- 
mission for "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp." In 1634 married Saskia 
van Uylenburch, whose dowry made him prosperous and helped him 
to become one of the most famous painters of his time. In 1639 bought 
a handsome house in Breestraat, where he lived in magnificent style, 
with a studio full of pupils, and an imposing art collection. 1642, 
"The Shooting Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq" ("The 
Night Watch"), the unsuccessful reception of which cost him his 
popularity. Saskia died in 1642, leaving a year old son, Titus. 
Hendrickje StofFels, first a nurse for Titus and later Rembrandt's 
faithful mistress, probably came in 1645- Waning fame. Forced to 
mortgage his house. Inventory of goods, 1656. 1657, first auction; 
1657, second auction, house and graphic collection. Retired to ghetto 
where he continued to work, almost forgotten. Last important com- 
mission, "Syndics" 1661-2. Hendrickje's death, 1662. Pursued by 
debts and creditors. 1669, Titus's death. 

From beginning to end, Rembrandt's art is one long, unceasing 
quest for expressiveness. He started, as the "Portrait of his Father" 
shows, with an amazing command over realism and an exalted, even 
grandiose conception, which in such works as "The Raising of 
Lazarus" (school version of a Rembrandt subject) borders on the 
theatric. His series of social portraits done in the thirties, of which 
"Elizabeth van Rijh" is an excellent example, display not only 
his technical skill but an outer distinction which helps to ac- 
count for their popularity. At the same time the grisaille "Christ 
Washing the Disciples' Feet" reveals his more creative side with 
dramatic contrast of dark masses touched with sudden light. This 
dark and light, used to enhance old subjects with romantic signifi- 
cance, reaches its climax in the forties in ' 'The Night Watch' ' where, 
on a canvas of enormous size, it plays a strongly illusionistic role. In 
such a picture as "The Young Girl at an Open Half-Door," however, 
this impulse is balanced by a new search for stability and in the 
"Christ at Emmaus" light, color and form create an unforgettable 
compositional harmony. Through the fifties, his painting grows 
broader and richer, the light more golden, the psychological percep- 
tion more trenchant. The Fuller "Portrait" (No. 9) in its simpler 
massing and tragic incisiveness foretells the decade of the sixties. In a 

[17] 



painting like "Aristotle with Head of Homer," Rembrandt's exterior 
vision is replaced by an inward emotional urge. The "Lucretia," 
where strange, rich color laid on with a palette knife mingles with 
an inner transcendent illumination, represents his final expressionism. 

1. HARMEN GERRITSZ. VAN RIJN (Rembrandt's father) 

Oil on canvas, 33 x 30 in. 
Signed: rd. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (W. W. Kimball Collec- 
tion). 

Coll.: M. P. W. Boulton, Tew Park, England (Sale, 1911, No. 
14); P. and D. Colnaghi and Obach, Lond.; J. Bohler, Munich; 
M. de Nemes, Budapest (Sale, Paris, 1913, No. 60, repr. in cat.); 
J. Bohler, Munich; Reinhardt, N. Y.; Mrs. W. W. Kimball, Chi. 

Exh.: Diisseldorf, 1912, No. 43; Detroit Institute of Arts, 1930, 
No. 9 (repr. in cat.); Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art. Inst, of Chi., 
1933, No. 74 and 1934, No. 104 (repr. PI. XIX). The Art Inst, of 
Chi., 1935, No. 1 (Repr. in Cat. No. 1.). 

Lit.: W. Bode, Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst, XXIII (1912), 210 
(repr.); H. de Groot, 675; J. C. Van Dyke, Rembrandt and his School, 
1923, 111; Valentiner, II, 17 (repr.); Valentiner, Rembrandt Paint- 
ings, 5 and PI. 5- 

Valentiner dates it 1629. See H. de Groot, supra, for notice of copies. A replica, by a 
weaker hand, was at one time in the collection of S. Neumann of Lond. 

Harmen Gerritsz. van Rijn, born in Leyden, 1568, buried there, April 27, 1630. 

2. CHRIST WASHING THE DISCIPLES' FEET 

Oil on paper pasted on panel, 18^ x 23^4 in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (R. Alexander Waller 

Memorial). 

Coll. : Harman Becker, Amsterdam (Inventory of property left Oct. 

19th, 1678); Huybert Ketelaar, Amsterdam (Sale, June 19, 1776, 

No. 175): F. Kemper; Central European Collection: E. and A. Sil- 

berman, N. Y. 

Exh: The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 2. 

Lit.: A. Bredius, Oud-Holland, XXVIII (1910), 198; H. de Groot, 

119; J. Held, Art in America, XXIII (1935), 114, 117-119 and Fig. 3- 

Dr. W. R. Valentiner who will publish the painting in a forthcoming number of the 
Burlington Magazine assigns it to 1634, connecting it with the "Unbelieving Thomas" 
in the Hermitage (Valentiner, 159) and "The Rest During the Flight into Egypt" in 
The Hague (Valentiner, 161). 

J. Held believes it to have been done 1630-31. 

See Valentiner, Hand., II, Nos. 442, 443, 444 for drawings of the subject. 

The painting sold in 1776 for fl. 4.75, the equivalent of $3 or $4. 

[ 18] 



3. ELIZABETH GERRITSZ. VAN RIJN (Rembrandt's Sister) 
(1632) 

Oil on panel, oval 23)^ x 17 in. 

Signed: p. h. l. van ryn 1632. 

Lent by Robert Treat Paine II, Boston. 

Coll.: Valpingon, Paris; Secretari, Paris (sale 1889, No. 154); 
C. Sedelmeyer, Paris; Prince Lichtenstein, Vienna; Vose, Boston. 

Exh.: Lichtenstein Gallery, Vienna, n.d.; Detroit Inst, of Arts, 
May 1930. No. 17. 

Lit.: Bode 311; Dutuit, 189, H. de Groot, 699; Valentiner, 56; 
J. C. van Dyke, Rembrandt and His School, p. 39, 1923, Valentiner, 
Rembrandt Paintings, PI. 17; Michel, pages 168, 560; Moes, No. 
6686, 10. 

4. YOUNG GIRL AT AN OPEN HALF-DOOR (Hendrickje Stof- 

fels?) (1645) 

Oil on canvas, 40^i x 34>"8 in. 

Signed: rembrandt f. 1645- 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Gift of Martin A. 

Ryerson). 

Coll.: De Gueffier, Paris, 1791; Robit (Sale, Paris, 1801); G. Hib- 
bert (Sale, Lond., 1829); Christie, Lond., 1829; N. Hibbert, Lond., 
1857; Prince A. Demidoff, San Donato, Italy (Sale, 1880, No. 1114, 
repr. in cat.); Prince P. Demidoff, Pratolino, Italy; 1890; M. A. 
Ryerson, Chi., 1894. 

Exh.: British Institution, Lond., 1818, No. 100; 1844, No. 23; 
1857, No. 87; Hudson-Fulton celebration, Met. Mus. of Art, N. Y. 
1909, 91 (repr. in cat.), Detroit Inst, of Arts, May, 1930, No. 42 
(repr. in cat.); Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art Inst, of Chi., 1933, 
No. 75 (PL XXXIV of cat.) and 1934, No. 107; Ryksmuseum, Am- 
sterdam, July 13-October 13, 1935, No. 12 (repr. in cat.). The Art 
Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 4. (Repr. in cat.) No. 4. 

Lit.: Smith 532; W. Bode, Rembrandts Kunstlerischer Entwickelungs- 
gang, 1883, B, No. 373; Bode, 301 (repr.); Valentiner, 313 (repr.); 
H. de Groot, 324; J. C. Van Dyke, Rembrandt and his School, 1923, 
PL 225, 400, 413; Valentiner, Rembrandt Paintings, 90 and PL 90. 

Engraved by F. C. G. Geyser. 

Valentiner believes that it represents Hendrickje Stoffels (b. 1623 or 1626) who prob- 
ably came into Rembrandt's household at this time. 

For the motif as developed by other members of the Rembrandt School see Nos. 12 and 
14 and the note to No. 14. 

Hind, who is inclined to think it does not represent Hendrickje, mentions two studies 
in Stockholm (H. d. G., Hand., 1590 and 1591) and a drawing of "A Woman at a Win- 
dow" in the collection of H. E. Ten Cate (H. d. G., Hand., 1016). 

[19] 



5. CHRIST AT EMMAUS (1648) 

Oil on oak panel, 27 x 26 in. 

Signed: rembrandt f. 1648. 

Lent by The Louvre Museum, Paris. 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, July 13-October 13, 1935, No. 
15 (repr. in cat.). The Art Inst, of Chi. , 1935, No. 5 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: Bode, 326; Valentiner, 294; H. de Groot, 145; W. Weisbach, 
Rembrandt, 1926, 474; W. Stechow, Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte, 
III (1934), 329-341. 

Valentiner, Hand., II, lists five preliminary drawings for the subject, none of them 
directly related to this composition. 

"The subject must have appealed to Rembrandt's power of intense spiritual expression, 
for besides the pictures and etchings of 1648 and 1654, there is the remarkably vivid 
picture of about 1629 in the Jacquemart-Andre collection, Paris (Valentiner, 10), the 
etching of 1634 (H. 121), and, latest of all, another picture at Paris (Valentiner, 463). 
Houbraken, in speaking of the variety of drawings Rembrandt made of a single sub- 
ject, takes the Supper at Emmaus as his example, and reproduces in etching one of several 
he knew showing the moment of the story when Christ vanished from the disciples' 
sight. He also refers to many others, in which Christ is conversing, as in all the ver- 
sions we have quoted." — Hind, R., 64. 

For a careful analysis of the development of the subject see Stechow, supra. 

6. ARISTOTLE WITH THE BUST OF HOMER (1653) 

Oil on canvas, 543^ x 52^ in. 

Signed: rembrandt f. 1653- 

Lent by Duveen Brothers, Inc., New York. 

Coll.: Marquis Antonio Ruffo, Messina (1653); Sir A. Hume, 
Ashridge Pk., Hertfordshire; Earl Brownlow, Ashridge Pk.; 
R. Kann, Paris (1907); Mrs. C. P. Huntington, N. Y.; A. W. 
Erickson, N. Y. 

Exh.: British Institution, 1815, No. 39; Royal Academy, Lond., 
1893, No. 125; Metro. Mus. of Art, N. Y., 1909, No. 97 (repr. in 
cat.); Detroit Inst, of Arts, 1931; Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art 
Inst, of Chi., 1933, No. 73 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: Smith, 302; C. Vosmaer, Rembrandt, 1877, 551; W. Bode 
Rembrandt s Kunstleriscber Entivkkelungs gang, 1883, B, 578, No. 139 

E. Dutuit, Tableaux et Dessins de Re?nbrandt, Supple., 1885, 43, No 
314; Von Wurzbach, Rembrandt Galerie, 1886, No. 159; E. Michel 
Rembrandt, 1893, 555 (English edition, 1894, II, 235); J. Six 
Oud-Holland, XV (1897), 4-5, Fig. 7; Bode, 385 (repr.); A 
Rosenberg, Rembrandt (Klassiker der Kunsf), 1906, 282 (repr.) 
Valentiner, 426 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 413; G. J 
Hoogewerff, Oud-Holland, XXXV (1917), 129-148 (repr.); J. J 

F. Backer, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Per. 5, II (1925), 53~4 (repr.) 
F. E. W. Freund, Cicerone, XXI (1929), 463~5 (repr.); Valentiner, 
Burlington Magazine, LVII (1930), 271; Valentiner, Re?nbrandt 
Paintings, 1931, PL 115- 

[20] 



Hoogewerff has shown that the painting was ordered by Don Antonio Ruffo of Messina, 
a famous art patron of the day. Rembrandt doubtless painted for him the "Alexander" 
(1655), in Glasgow, and the "Homer" (1663), in the Hague. Valentiner finds other 
works employing the same model, and notes that the bust of Homer is mentioned in 
an inventory of Rembrandt's art collections. 

7. JOSEPH AND POTIPHAR'S WIFE (1655) 

Oil on canvas, 413^ x 38M in. 

Signed: rembrandt, f. 1655- 

Lent by M. Knoedler and Company, New York. 

Coll.: G. van Hoet, The Hague (Sale, 1760, No. 44); J. E. 
Gotskowsky, Berlin; Catherine II, The Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, 1763, No. 794. 

Exh.: Knoedler Gall., N. Y., 1933, No. 2; Cent, of Prog. Exh., 
Art. Inst., Chi., 1934, No. 105 (repr. in cat.), No. 105. 

Lit.: Smith, 21; Ch. Vosmaer, Rembrandt, 1877, 551; W. Bode, 
Rembrandt's Kiinstlerischer Entwickelungsgang, 1883, B, No. 319, 
508, 599; E. Dutuit, Tableaux et Dessins de Rembrandt, 1885, No. 
14, 39, 59, 69; Von Wurzbach, Rembrandt Galerie, 1886, No. 389; 
J. W. Mollett, Rembrandt, 1886, 93; E. Michel, Rembrandt, 1893, 
399, 566 (English edition, 1894, II, 80, 81, 245); Bode, 401, Intr. 
iii-iv, 34; M. Bell, Rembrandt and His Work, 1901, 71, 151; E. A. 
Sharp, Rembrandt, 1904, 148; A. Rosenberg, Rembrandt (Klassiker 
der Kunsi), 1906, 301 (repr.), 403, 427, 429; N. Wrangell, Les 
Chefs-d'oeuvre de V Ermitage, 1907, xiv, xxix, 127 (repr.); Valen- 
tiner, 560; Von Wurzbach, Niederlandisches Kunstler Lexicon, 1910, 
II, 409; Benezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres, 1911, II, 619; H. deGroot, 
18; I. Errera, Repertoire des Peintures Datees, 1920, I, 282; D. S. 
Meldrum, Rembrandt's Paintings, 1923, PI. CCCXCVI, 201; F. 
Watson, Parnassus, V (April, 1933), 1 (repr.); Connoisseur, XCI 
(April, 1933), 276 (repr.); Pantheon, XI (April, 1933), 136 (repr.); 
Fine Arts, XX (May, 1933), 8. 

This is a slightly smaller version of a similar painting by Rembrandt now in the 
Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, Berlin. Both are inscribed 1655 but Bode maintains that 
under the last figure of the date of this example a figure 4 is visible, indicating that 
it was painted by the master in 1654 and worked over by him again in 1655. This 
makes the Berlin example a slightly altered repetition of the present one. Michel and 
Somof believe 1655 the original date in both instances. 

Rembrandt painted few pictures in 1655- He was in great financial distress and in the 
following year he was declared bankrupt. Somof considers that Rembrandt's son, 
Titus, was the model for Joseph and adds that a drawing (by Rembrandt?) for this 
composition is in the Pinakonthek, Munich. 



[ 21 ] 



8. THE HIGH PRIEST (1657) 
Oil on panel 10.4 x 11.8 in. 
Signed: rembrandt 1657. 

Lent by Joseph L. Buttenweiser, New York. 

Coll. : Private collection in England. 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1935, No. 20 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: Rembrandt Tentoonstelling, catalogue, Amsterdam, 1935, 
No. 20. 

Cf. Profile of an Old Man, Payne Whitney coll. (Valentiner, PI. 162). 

Cf. Self Portrait (1661), Lord Kinnaird coll. (repr. Rembrandt Tentoonstelling, 

Amsterdam, 1932, PI. 33). 

9. PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN (1665) 
Canvas, 44 x 33/^ in. 

Signed: rembrandt f. 1665- 

Lent by Hon. Alvan T. Fuller, Boston. 

Coll.: Marquis de Beausset; A. Allard, Brussels; Sales, Prosper 
Crabbe of Brussels, Paris, June 12, 1890; James Ross of Montreal, 
London, July 8, 1927, No. 16. 

Exh.: Montreal, 1906, No. 2; Hudson-Fulton Exh., Met. Mus. of 
N. Y., 1909, No. 99; Burlington House, London, 1929, No. 89 
(repr. PL XLVII); Detroit Inst, of Arts, 1930, No. 75- 

Lit.: Bode, 448; Valentiner, 433; H. de Groot, 750; Valentiner, 
Rembrandt Paintings, 168. 

10. LUCRETIA (1666) 

Oil on canvas, 43 x 36>£ in. 
Signed: rembrandt f. 1666. 

Lent by The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota. 

Coll.: Wombwell, Lond., 1854; Herschel V. Jones, Minneapolis. 

Exh.: Detroit Institute of Arts, May, 1930, No. 77 (repr in cat.). 
The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 8'. (Repr. in cat.) No. 8. 

Lit.: Dr. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain, 1854, II, 308; 
H. de Groot, 220; Valentiner, Rembrandt Paintings, No. 169 and 
PI. 169; Bulletin of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, XXIV (1935), 
No. 2 (Jan. 12), 5 (repr.), 7-9. 

Another version belongs to Mr. Andrew W. Mellon, Washington. (See Valentiner, 457. 
This is dated 1664). 

An earlier version, which Dr. Valentiner believes to be chiefly executed by assistants 
(sometimes attributed to Jan Victors), is in the Detroit Institute of Arts. 

[ 22] 




6. REMBRANDT 



ARISTOTLE WITH THE BUST OF HOMER 

Duveen Brothers, New York 



[23 ] 



PAINTINGS BY ARTISTS IN 
REMBRANDT'S CIRCLE 



FERDINAND BOL 

BORN in Dordtrecht, 1616. Died in Amsterdam, 1680. Apparently 
a pupil of Rembrandt in the early thirties. His first signed works 
date from 1642. After leaving Rembrandt, Bol turned more and more 
to portraiture, becoming the most popular painter of personages in 
Amsterdam. During his life he received important orders for group 
portraits and monumental decorations and died rich and respected. 
Like Rembrandt he collected works of art and etched as well as 
painted. 

Bol employed a flatter, thinner method of painting than that of his 
teacher but often carried out compositions in handsome patterns of 
color. His earlier work, like the "Saskia," is distinguished by mel- 
low tone and rich effect of light and shade. In general he avoided the 
vigorous plastic surfaces found in Rembrandt, concentrating on a 
smooth, somewhat atmospheric delicacy, and the sincerity of his first 
work is later replaced by a somewhat specious elegance. 

11. SASKIA 

Oil on panel, 26}4 x 20>^ in. 

Dated: 1642. 

Lent by Jacques Seligmann and Co., Inc., New York City. 

Coll.: A. J. Sully, Lond. 

Exh.: Cincinnati Museum of Art, October, 1925. The Art Inst, 
of Chi., 1935, No. 10. (Repr. in cat.) No. 10. 

Repr.: The Art News, XXV (Dec. 11, 1926), 9. 

According to Dr. Valentiner a portrait of Saskia van Uylenburch (born 1613; married 
Rembrandt in 1634; died in 1642). She was the mother of Titus van Rijn. 

On the motif see No. 14 of the present exhibition. A later painting by Bol (signed and 
dated 1663) of a "Girl at a Window" which recalls Saskia is in the Toledo Museum of 
Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

Compare the Rembrandt portrait of Saskia, painted about 1633-4, today in Cassel 
(Valentiner 127). 

WILLEM DROST 

DATE and place of birth unknown. Died 1678(?). The archivists 
have dug up little on Drost. Only a few signed pictures are 
known, but from their mannerist character it is possible that he 
worked in Italy, and almost certain that he came in contact with 
Rembrandt and probably studied with him during that artist's mid- 
dle period. The signed "Portrait of a Man" in the Warburg Collec- 
tion in New York, dated 1655, is Rembrandtesque but such works as 
"The Christ and Magdalene" in Cassel and the "Bathsheba" in the 
Louvre display other and complex influences. If the "Sibyl" in the 
present exhibit is really by Drost he was a painter of considerable 
power, closely allied in breadth and vigor to Rembrandt's later style. 

[ 26] 



12. THE SIBYL 

Oil on canvas, 3Sj4 x 30^ in. 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Coll.:R. C. Barnett, Lond., 1881; Baron E. de Beurnonville, Paris 
(Sales, 1884 and 1885); Lawrie and Co., Lond. (Sale, 1905, No. 
102); T. J. Blakeslee, N. Y. ; T. M. Davis, Newport, R. I. 

Exh.: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1905; Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, 1906; the same, Hudson-Fulton Celebration, 
1909, No. 101 (repr. in cat. I, opp. 102). The Art Inst, of Chi., 
1935, No. 11, (repr. in cat.) No. 11. 

Lit.: Bode, 528 (repr.); Sedelmeyer Gallery, Paris, ioo Paintings 
by Old Masters, Eighth Series, 1902, No. 31 (repr.); Museum of 
Fine Arts Bulletin, III (1905), 45; Valentiner, 386 (left); J. Veth, 
Oud-Holland, XXXIII (1915), 13-14, repr. opp. 12; H. de Groot, 
214; J. C. Van Dyke, Rembrandt and his School, 1923, PI. X, No. 38 
and p. 64; Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, XXXVI (1931), 
Sect. II, (March), 15, 23 (repr.). 

Engraved in mezzotint. The picture was long known as a Rembrandt and when in the 
de Beurnonville collection bore a false signature and date 1654. Bode and Hofstede de 
Groot give it to Rembrandt. 

Van Dyke attributes it to Drost, comparing it with the "Young Woman" in the Wal- 
lace Coll., Lond., which has definite affinities with the signed "Bathsheba" in the 
Louvre. Dr. Valentiner attributes it to Drost. Schmidt-Degener (1935) believes it to be 
by Drost and dates it c. 1659-60. Veth, supra, notes its likeness to Domenichino's 
"Cumean Sibyl" in the Palazzo Borghese, Rome. 

BARENT FABRITIUS 

BORN at De Beemster, near Amsterdam, 1624. Died 1673- Younger 
brother of Carel Fabritius and like him first a carpenter (sur- 
name of family, faber = carpenter). Spent youth with Carel, and 
through him probably introduced into Rembrandt's studio about 
1643 or 1644, where Dr. Valentiner believes that he remained until 
c. 1650, assisting the master in studio works. First signed work, 1650. 
Delft, 1652. Leyden, possibly 1655-1660 (Barent was admitted to the 
Guild of Leyden in 1658). De Beemster and Amsterdam until his death. 
Rediscovered by Burger (Thore) in the course of his Vermeer re- 
searches in the 1860s. 

Barent' s earliest work, such as the "Girl Plucking a Fowl" which 
according to Valentiner was probably painted in Rembrandt's studio, 
shows him closely identified with his teacher's style of the forties, 
and displays a broad treatment of light and shade, in combination 
with red browns and greyish browns. 

"The Adulteress before Christ," now connected with Barent, indi- 
cates how completely he accepted Rembrandt ' s composition but shows 
as well his feeling for color and texture, particularly in certain broad 
and plastic surfaces of pigment. After 1652, he begins to reflect the 
lighter backgrounds and spatial effects of Carel. Always impression- 

[27] 



able, Barent followed the trend towards genre painting of which the 
"Satyr and the Peasant," with a Rembrandt motif translated into a 
scene from daily life, is an excellent example. His final style, some- 
what imitative of Jan Steen, betrays a growing mannerism of attenu- 
ated proportions, contorted rhythms, and an attractive palette. 

13. THE ADULTERESS BEFORE CHRIST 

Oil on canvas, 45>^ x 54 in. 

Lent by The T. B. Walker Collection, Minneapolis. 
Coll.: Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim, 1836; (Sale of Marlbo- 
rough Coll., Lond., June 26, 1886, No. 37); Sir CharlesJ. Robinson, 
Lond.; Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1891; E. F. Weber, Hamburg, 1895; 
(Sale of Weber Coll., Berlin, February 20, 1912, No. 250); Sedel- 
meyer; T. B. Walker, Minneapolis. 

Exh. : Amsterdam, 1898, No. 62; California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1927. The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 12, 
(repr. in cat.) No. 12. 

Lit. : Smith, No. 113; Dr. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain, 
1854, III, 126; W. Bode, Studien %ur Geschichte der Hollandischen 
Malerei, 1883, 508, 578; Sedelmeyer Gallery, Paris, ioo Paintings by 
Old Masters, Second Series, 1895, No. 32 (repr.); C. Hofstede de 
Groot, Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, XXI (1899), 160-1; Bode, 
338; Valentiner, 537 (listed among doubtful paintings); A. Bre- 
dius, Burlington Magazine, XXI (1912), 284-9 (repr. 285); On%e 
Kunst, 1912, 173; C. Sedelmeyer, The Adulteress Before Christ, 1912; 
H. de Groot, 105; Hind, R., 67-8; W. R. Valentiner, The Art 
Bulletin, XIV (1932), 228, Fig. 34, 229, 231. 

Engraved on wood by Baude. 

This much contested picture was original Iv attributed to Rembrandt and at one time 
bore a spurious signature and the date 1644. 

The composition is based on the painting by Rembrandt of the same subject in the 
National Gallery, Lond., dated 1644 (Valentiner, 279). A preliminary drawing, which 
Valentiner believes to be a school copy of a lost original by Rembrandt, was formerly 
in the Heseltine Collection. Valentiner compares the oil study for the figure of the 
Adulteress by Rembrandt (Valentiner, II, 73) formerly in the Huldschinsky Collection, 
Berlin. 

Smith, Waagen, Bode, and Hofstede de Groot believed it to be a work of the master. 
Bredius doubted the painting in 1898. Valentiner is inclined to attribute it almost en- 
tirely to Barent Fabritius, but feels that Rembrandt's brushwork is found in the head 
of the bearded Pharisee and in the outstretched hand. He considers that it was executed 
in the studio in the later forties. Hind calls it B. Fabritius. 

In his defense of the picture as an original work by the master, Sedelmeyer, supra, in- 
geniously compares its details with details from other compositions, not all of which 
are now considered to be by Rembrandt. 

14. GIRL PLUCKING A FOWL 

Oil on canvas, 33 x 28 in. 

Lent by Wildenstein and Company, Inc., New York 

Coll.: Duke de Morny. 

Exh. : The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 13- 

[28] 



Lit.: W. R. Valentiner, The Art Bulletin, XIV (1932), 216, Fig. 18, 

220, 223. 

A preliminary pen and wash drawing attributed first to B. Fabritius by G. Falck Old 
Master Drawings, III |1928|, 48 51), is in the Tobias Christ Coll., Basel. 
The painting was originally given to Rembrandt and later to Maes. Another painting 
ot .i very similar subject attributed to Barent by Falck, xupra, is in the Harrach Coll., 
Vienna. Apparently the subject goes back to a painting ot "An Old Woman Plucking 
a Hen" (Valentiner, II, 45 formerly CO in the possession of F. Kleinbergcr, Paris, dated 
by Valentiner c. 1640. He compares the motif with paintings of a young girl at a win- 
dow by Rembrandt at Dulwich (Valentiner, 320), in the collection of the Duke of Bed- 
ford (Valentiner, 322) and The Art Institute of Chicago (Valentiner, 323), the last No. 
4of the present exhibition, suggesting that all were painted from the same model whom 
he considers to be Hendrickje. Rembrandt himself returned to much the same sub- 
ject in the "Young Girl with a Broom" in the Hermitage, Leningrad Valentiner, 325 
right) and the "Young Girl" in Stockholm (Valentiner, 325 left , both dated 1651 . 
"The ///otif of the female half-figure framed by a dark window, which was developed 
by Rembrandt — and at the same time by Italian and Spanish painters -in the sense of 
the baroque, with strong relief effect and concentrated light and shadow contrasts, was 
very popular among the entire Rembrandt school from Govert Flinck and Ferdinand 
Bol to Samuel van Hoogstraten, Nicolaes Maes, W'illem Drost and Arent de Gelder 
Barent Fabritius, also, directly stimulated by Rembrandt, had a predilection for this 
motif . . ." Valentiner, supra, 223. 

15. THE SATYR AND THE PEASANT 

Oil on canvas, 20 x 25 in. 

Lent by Mrs. Paul M. Warburg, New York City. 

Exh.: The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 14. 

Lit. : W. R. Valentiner, The Art Bulletin, XIV (1932), 237, Fig. 43, 

239. 

Valentiner illustrates a later version in Bergamo, dated 1662. He also notes a drawing 
of the subject in the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam, by Barent and cites a drawing by 
Rembrandt in The Art Institute of Chicago, No. 27 of the present exhibition. 
The subject is taken from Aesop's "Fable of the Traveler and the Satyr," in which a 
Satyr marvels to see the peasant blowing first on his hands to warm them and next on 
his soup to cool it. 

GOVERT FLINCK 

BORN at Leeuwarden, 1615- Died, Amsterdam, 1660. After a short 
period with an unimportant local artist went to Amsterdam, ap- 
parently at the suggestion of Backer, one of Rembrandt's first pupils, 
entering the studio about 1632, where he probably remained until 
about 1635- (His first dated picture was done in 1636.) Basing his 
style upon Rembrandt's early manner he painted Biblical, historical 
and allegorical subjects and portraits, particularly heads. After 1640 
the Rembrandtesque character begins to disappear from his work and 
his portraits come under the influence of van der Heist. Flinck re- 
ceived important commissions for ceremonial portraits and for deco- 
rations in public buildings in Amsterdam. During his day his work 
was exceedingly popular and he was frequently praised in the seven- 
teenth century as equaling Rembrandt. At the end of his life (1659) 
he received an important order for twelve paintings to adorn the 
Town Hall in Amsterdam. For these he left only sketches and the 

[29] 



commission was finally awarded to a group of painters, Rembrandt 
receiving an order for one of the twelve. At his death Flinck left a 
collection of paintings, drawings and sketches by famous masters 
which realized a considerable sum. 

Chiefly an imitator of Rembrandt, Flinck was endowed with a 
strong if somewhat commonplace narrative sense and managed to fill 
his often thin and rather bulkless figures with a certain exterior 
drama. His masterpiece, "Isaac Blessing Jacob," displays his feeling 
for color which developed progressively out of the Rembrandt light 
and shade, and his fondness for diagonal composition and surface 
arabesque. "Hermes and Aglauros," a painting so close to Rem- 
brandt that it passed until recently as a work of the master, again 
displays his theatric sense, here at work upon a rare mythological 
subject. 

16. HERMES AND AGLAUROS 

Oil on canvas 28^ x 35^ in. 
Signed: "rembrandt, 1652." 
Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

Coll.: Francis Brooks, Boston. 

Exh. : Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, May-August, 1909; the same, 
April, 1922; The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 15. 

Lit. : Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin, I (1903), 23; Valentiner, 539, as 
by a pupil of Rembrandt, perhaps Flinck; C. Hofstede de Groot, 
"Flinck," in Thieme-Becker, Kiinstlerlexikon, XII, 1916, 99. 

Formerly called "Hermes and Danae. " Dr. E. Panofsky identified the subject. Aglauros 
was a daughter of Cecrops. She was punished by being changed into stone by Hermes 
because she attempted to prevent the god from entering the house of Herse, her sister, 
with whom he had fallen in love. 

17. ISAAC BLESSING JACOB (1638) 

Oil on canvas, 46 x 55/^ in. 

Signed: G. Flinck, 1638. 

Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Gerrit van der Pot, Rotterdam (Sale, 1808). 

Exh,: The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 16 (repr. in cat.)- 

A preparatory drawing in black and red chalk and wash is in the collection of F. 
Koenigs, Haarlem, now on loan at the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam. 

Rembrandt treated a similar subject in the painting of "Isaac Blessing Esau," formerly 
in the collection of the Earl of Brownlow (Valentiner, 172), about 1636. See the group 
of Rembrandt drawings for the subject in Valentiner, Hand., I, Nos. 60-65, 432. 

Compare the similar compositions by Gerbrand van den Eeeckhout in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum (dated 1642) and by Gerrits Willemsz. Horst in the C. H. Beaver Coll., 
Scarsdale, N. Y. (reproduced by Valentiner, Oud-Holland, L [1933]), 245, and another 
painting by Horst in Berlin. 

The model for Isaac occurs frequently in the early work of both Rembrandt and Lievens. 
Examples, "Old Man" by Lievens in The Hague; "A Study of an Old Man" formerly in 
the Fabbri Coll., N. Y. (Valentiner, 46, right). 

[30] 



ARENT DE GELDER 

BORN in Dordrecht, 1645- Diedthere, 1727. Worked first with Samuel 
van Hoogstraten, a pupil of Rembrandt, who undoubtedly sent 
him to the master. Entering the studio about 1661 he remained with 
Rembrandt until the latter's death in 1669, when he returned to Dor- 
drecht, to become the town's leading painter. 

De Gelder built his art upon the last phase of Rembrandt, imitat- 
ing the brilliant color, rich textures and broad, loose brush work of 
the sixties. He painted a number of small Biblical subjects with well- 
grouped figures revealed in deep, gold light and nearly always dis- 
plays a fondness for fantastic, semi-Oriental costume. He preferred 
the Old Testament and did a group of paintings from the Esther story 
of which the present "Esther and Mordecai" is one. His portraits, 
of which "The Girl" is a superlative example, show how sumptuous 
his painting could sometimes become. Little interested in his sitters' 
personalities, he loved the gold and glitter of their lavish dress. A 
contemporary remarks that "like Rembrandt he had in his studio an 
unbelievable amount of household furnishings; old costumes, old- 
fashioned hangings, weapons, armor, helmets, empty flasks, old 
boots and slippers, enough stuff (the thrifty Dutch critic notes) to 
outfit a dozen old clothesmen. ' ' 

He was among the few pupils of Rembrandt who remained faith- 
ful to the precepts of the studio and, even in those later works where 
the easier, lighter brushwork and the increased use of broken curves 
announce the coming rococo, still built directly on what he had 
learned during his long apprenticeship. 

18. PORTRAIT OF A GIRL 

Oil on canvas, 26 x 21 in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (W. D. Walker Collection). 

Coll.: H. Ker-Colville, Jr., Bellport Towers, England; D. A. 

Hoogendijk and Co., Amsterdam, 1929. 

Exh.: Royal Academy, Lond., 1929, No. 289; Cent, of Prog. Exh., 

The Art. 'Inst, of Chi., 1933, No. 60 (PI. XXXIX) and 1934, No. 

89; The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 17- 

Lit. : D. C. Rich, Bull., XXVII (1933), 33-6 (repr.). 

According to Dr. K. Lilienfeld executed c. 1690. Dr. E. Panofsky notes that it is based 
on Rembrandt's "Portrait of a Woman" in the National Gallery, Lond., (Valentiner 
508 right) dated 1666. 

19. ESTHER AND MORDECAI 

Oil on canvas, 23^ x 56}4 in. 

Lent by The Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. 

Coll.: Sanford Collection (attributed to Bol and called "The 
Misers.") 

Exh.: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, N. Y., The Art Inst, of 
Chi., 1935, No. 18. 

[31 ] 



Lit. : L. E. R. , Bulletin of the Rhode Island School of Design, IX (1921), 
38-9 (repr.). 

Three other versions by de Gelder are known, each different: 

1. Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. Signed and dated 1685- 

2. State Picture Gallery, Dresden (closest to the present composition). 

3. A. Hirsch Coll., Buenos Aires (possibly the picture mentioned by K. Lilienfeld, 
Arent de Gelder, 1914, 144, No. 40 as once belonging to the van der Spyk and de Kat 
Colls.). 

De Gelder was drawn to the book of Esther for his themes. (The present incident is 
found in Chapter IX.) Compare the painting by Rembrandt now in Moscow (Valen- 
tiner, 453) showing Ahasuerus and Haman dining with Esther, dated 1660. 
Lilienfeld, supra, believes that the models were the brother and sister-in-law of the 
artist. From contemporary sources in Dordrecht he discovered that the brother was a 
lawyer and that his wife was fond of rich dress and luxuries. 
L. E. Rowe suggests that the painting was done before 1685- 

PHILIPS DE KONINCK 

BORN, Amsterdam, 1619 or 1620. Died there, 1688. Probably stud- 
ied with Rembrandt before 1639, and was instructed by him in 
portraiture and composition. In Rotterdam, he was initiated in 
landscape by his elder brother, Jacob. De Koninck led a prosperous 
life and married Cornelia Furnerius, sister of Abraham Furnerius, 
another Rembrandt pupil. Though in his day celebrated for his Bib- 
lical, historical and genre painting and much praised for his por- 
traits (many of which were confused soon after his death and later 
with the figure work of his cousin, Salomon), de Koninck is chiefly 
remembered now for his remarkable landscapes, wherein he united 
something of the romantic lighting and space of Rembrandt with the 
older panoramic tradition of Holland. These works, with their in- 
sistence on horizontal design, and their subtle illumination, show a 
highly personal style which the artist failed to express in other sub- 
jects, such as his genre scenes, where Hofstede de Groot finds him re- 
flecting Maes, or his peasant pictures, where he imitates Brouwer. 
The portrait of his friend, Heyman Dullaert, himself a pupil of 
Rembrandt, is an unusually sensitive work by de Koninck, endowed 
with interpretive qualities which many of his heads, empty in ex- 
pression and dull in drawing, lack. 

20. HEYMAN DULLAERT 

Oil on canvas, 25 x 22 in. 

Lent by The City Art Museum, St. Louis. 

Coll.: Neville-Cooper Coll., Lond.; Ehrich Galleries, N. Y. 
Exh.: The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 19- 

Lit. : Houbraken, Die Groote Schouburgb derNederlandsche Konstschil- 
ders en schilderessen, 1721, III, 64 (repr.); J. B. Descamps, La Vie des 
Peintres Flamands, Allemands et Hollandois, 1753, III, 47; J. B. M. 
Bulletin of the City Art Museum of St. Louis, X (1925), 26, 27 (repr.). 

Heyman Dullaert (1636-1684), painter and poet, pupil of Rembrandt. Appeared as a 
witness for the master in 1653- Only one picture by Dullaert is known. 

[ 32] 



JAN LIEVENS 

BORN in Leyden, 1607. Died in Amsterdam, 1674. Studied with a 
minor teacher in his birthplace but in 1618-20 was with Last- 
man (who also taught Rembrandt), Leyden, 1621-31. Until 1631 
shared a studio there with Rembrandt but was never, as has so often 
been said, a pupil of the master, both young artists developing along 
parallel lines, employing the same models, painting and etching the 
same subjects, and even occasionally collaborating on a single work. 
Constantyn Huyghens, who visited them in Leyden in 1630, wrote: 

"Rembrandt is superior in judgment and in the power of vivid expression; Lievens in 
sublimity of invention and a certain daring in subject and forms; the youthful soul of 
Lievens breathes nothing that is not grand and magnificent. Rembrandt cared more for 
attempting to concentrate in a smaller canvas an expression that you might seek in 
vain in a larger picture " (A. M. Hind translation), 

a comment which indicates how brilliant an artist Lievens was in his 
early period. Lievens spent the years 1632-4 in England and the period 
of 1635-43 in Antwerp, where he frequented the circle of Rubens, 
van Dyck and Brouwer. The Flemish influence soon supplanted the 
Dutch character and after he returned to Amsterdam in 1644 (where, 
with few interruptions, he lived until his death) his art reflected more 
and more the Flemish-French Baroque. Allegories and scenes from 
Greek and Roman history took the place of religious themes and 
realistic treatment. His final period is concerned with portraiture in 
the newer, ornate style. Lievens painted some remarkable landscapes, 
full of fluid, rhythmic drawing and expressive light and shade. His 
earlier period exhibits his astonishing skill in paint and his prefer- 
ence for scenes of a theatric, even melodramatic nature. Neither of 
the paintings here (if indeed, either is by his hand) is characteristic, 
but the "Old Woman Reading," in its rugged modeling, as well as a 
certain cleverness in pattern, suggests his style when he was working 
side by side with Rembrandt. 

21. OLD WOMAN READING 

Oil on panel, 21 }i x 25$4 in. 
Inscribed on book: IL 

Lent by the Trustee of the John G. Johnson Collection, Philadel- 
phia. 

Coll. : J. G. Deuringer, Augsburg (Cat., 1813, No. 143 as Lievens). 
Exh.: Hudson-Fulton Celebration, The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, N. Y., 1909, No. 62(repr. in cat. I, opp. 63) as Nicolaes Maes; 
The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 20 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: M. J. Friedlander, Repertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft, XXXIII 
(1910), 96, as Lievens; W. R. Valentiner, Catalogue of the Flemish 
and Dutch Paintings in the Johnson Collection, II, 1913, No. 487, repr. 
p. 338; H. de Groot, No. 120 (Maes, with reservations); H. 
Schneider, Jan Lievens, 1932, 176, No. 38 (among uncertain works). 

Valentiner originally gave it to Maes but is now inclined to believe that painting closer 
to Lievens. The signature has been often questioned. 

[33] 



NICOLAES MAES 

BORN in Dordrecht, 1632. Died, Amsterdam, 1693. Taught by 
local drawing master but went to Amsterdam to study with 
Rembrandt apparently about 1646-8, possibly interested through 
two other Dordrecht pupils, Jacob Levecq and Samuel van Hoog- 
straten. Under Rembrandt's example his color deepened and he 
painted with a richer tone and more concentration of his light. Maes' 
art, even in its early period, betrays a strong interest in genre sub- 
jects and in his best work, done, as Dr. Valentiner believes, between 
the years 1645 and 1659, we find him bringing Rembrandt's expres- 
sive, romantic qualities down to the level of everyday life. He ex- 
celled in small and often charming scenes painted in his own home 
and showing women spinning or engaged in domestic tasks. Later 
he came under the sway of Pieter de Hooch and considerably light- 
ened his palette, introducing violets, carmines, yellows and light 
blues. About 1660, after giving up religious subjects, he turned more 
and more to portraiture where he made a great contemporary suc- 
cess, introducing French costume and an allegorical turn that fore- 
tells the eighteenth century. 

"An Old Woman at Prayer" softens Rembrandt's realism, intro- 
ducing that note of sentiment which made Maes so popular in his 
own day and in the nineteenth century. 

22. AN OLD WOMAN AT PRAYER 

Oil on canvas, 43^ x 36^ in. 

Signed: Nico Maes. 

Owned by The Worcester Art Museum. 

Coll. : John Levy, New York. 

Exh. : The Art Inst, of Chi., 1935, No. 21. 

Lit.: W. R. Valentiner, Nicolaes Maes, 1923, PI. 36. 

Valentiner suggests that the model for this, as well as for similar subjects in Amster- 
dam, the Louvre, etc. was the artist's mother-in-law, the mother of Adriana Brouwers 
(had died by 1662). 

KAREL VAN DER PLUYM 

BORN at Leyden, 1625. Died there, 1672. Came from a family of 
distinguished plumbers who for over a hundred and fifty years 
had furnished lead pipes to churches and municipal buildings. Cou- 
sin and pupil of Rembrandt. As Karel became a member of the Guild 
in 1648 in Leyden, it is probable he wprked with the master in the 
late forties. In Leyden he was one of forty members of the Town 
Council. Outside duties doubtless limited his production and Bredius 
states that many of his best works are still found under Rembrandt's 
name. 

Karel made a speciality of painting picturesque old men like "The 
Geographer,"- — scholars, gold-weighers, money changers. In close 
touch with Rembrandt he imitated his broader manner of the fifties, 

[34] 



employing olive greens, browns and gold and on occasions a cool 
violet. Bredius considers his masterpiece the "Heraclitus and Democ- 
ritus," (Goudstikker Coll., Amsterdam) a painting frequently at- 
tributed to Rembrandt and on which the master may have helped 
him. (Adriaen van Rijn, Rembrandt's brother, evidently posed for 
one of the heads.) 

Karel's painting is curiously static but he reveals a happy taste in 
combinations of color and passages of light and dark. Unlike many 
of Rembrandt's pupils he seems never to have deserted the style and 
technique of his teacher. He was one of Titus van Rijn's guardians 
and left as legatees Rembrandt's children and Rembrandt's brother. 

23. THE OLD GEOGRAPHER 
Oil on canvas, 28 x 20 in. 
Signed: karel van d . . . 

Lent by Mr. Chester D. Tripp, Chicago. 

Coll. : Dr. J. E. Stillwell, N. Y. (Sale, 1927, No. 210, repr. in cat.). 

Exh.: The Art Inst, of Chi., 1931; Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art 
Inst, of Chi., 1933, No. 72 and 1934, No. 103; The Art Inst, of Chi., 
1935, No. 25 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: A. Bredius, Oud-Holland, XLVIII (1931), 246-7, 255, Pis. 4 
and 6. 

GERBRAND VAN DEN EECKHOUT 

BORN in Amsterdam, 1621. Died there, 1674- Pupil of Rembrandt 
about 1635^40. Van den Eeckhout was also influenced by Ter- 
borch. But his capacity for absorbing ideas from the men about him 
did not make of him an artist of the first rank. It is rather as a mirror 
in which the art of Rembrandt is reflected, than as a distinct per- 
sonality that he is valued. His treatment of still life and textures is 
charming, his pictorial arrangement good. His pictures have pas- 
sages of sumptuous colour, but oftentimes they are not consistent or 
wholly pleasing in tone. He was one of the most faithful, though 
not the greatest, of Rembrandt's pupils. 

24. THE GARDEN PARTY 
Oil on canvas 21 x 26 in. 

Signed: g. eeckhout, fe, ano. 1652. 

Owned by The Worcester Art Museum. 

Coll.: King of Holland, The Hague; Dingwall, London; Messrs. 
P. and D. Colnaghi; R. Langton Douglas. 

Lit.: Bull. Worcester Art Museum (E. I. S.), XIV, 1923, No. 3, 

71 (repr.), 70. 

[ 35] 




7. REMBRANDT 



JOSEPH AND POTIPHAR S WIFE 



M. Knoedler & Co., New York 



[ 36 ] 



DRAWINGS* 

REMBRANDT VAN RUN 

THE drawings of Rembrandt have no rival for dramatic implica- 
tion of line, economy of stroke, and breadth of effect. The same 
development away from exterior realism to interior expression, 
strongly marked in his painting and prints, may be observed in his 
draughtsmanship. As the drawings progress they become less nar- 
rowly observed from life and take on great unity and power. The final 
stage is almost abstract in its relations of line and tone, and full of 
imaginative, rather than literal, truth. 

Few of these sketches may be definitely related to paintings and 
prints. It was Rembrandt's custom, when planning a picture, to make 
a number of different studies of the subject, trying out, with a fertile 
invention almost unknown to the history of art, wholly new com- 
positions. "Most of Rembrandt's drawings are done in pen and brown 
ink (or pen and bistre and bistre wash [bistre is the brown made 
from charred wood]). A certain number were done in red or black 
chalk, a few with further colored chalks, mostly in his earlier period. 
There are also a few examples of silver point." (Hind., R., 144.) 

Hofstede de Groot accepts 1,600 drawings; Valentiner, in two vol- 
umes of his catalogue (to be completed by a third) about 800 and 
Hind believes there must be "hundreds more." 

25. WOMAN CARRYING A CHILD DOWNSTAIRS (Saskia and 
Child?) 

Pen and wash on paper, l l />. x 5J4 in- 
Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 
Coll.: C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1908, No. 400; Fogg Art 
Museum, Cambridge, Mass., 1917; The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, N. Y., 1918; Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, January, 1935, 
No. 48 (repr. in cat.); Fogg Art Museum, May, 1935. 
Lit.: Murray-Morgan, No. 191 and PI. 191; W. R. Valentiner, 
Rembrandt und seine Umgebung, 1905, 29; W. Bode and Valentiner, 
Zeichnungen altholl&ndischer Genremaler, 1907, PL I; Hind., R., 31 
and PL XIV; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 675 (repr.). 

Valentiner dates it 1630. If it represents Saskia it was probably done about 1636 and the 
child is Rembrandt's eldest, baptized December 15, 1635. 

26. DEATH AND THE MISER 

Pen and wash on paper, 6^4 x 6^ in. 

Inscribed (on the back): M.J. P. in red chalk. 

Lent by Mr. Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania. 

Coll.: Marsden J. Perry, Providence; Duveen Brothers, N. Y. 

*A11 drawings, unless otherwise noted, were included in the Exhibition of Rembrandt 
and His Circle, Art Institute of Chicago, December 1935, January 1936. 

[37] 



Exh.: Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, January, 1935, No. 49 (repr. 
in cat.). 

Lit.: W. R. Valentiner, Nicolaes Maes, 1924, 66, PI. 73. 
If by Rembrandt, c. 1633-5- Valentiner attributes it to Maes. 

27. THE SATYR AND THE PEASANT 

Pen and. wash on paper, iy& x 6 T /4 in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Charles Deering Collec- 
tion). 

Coll. : Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Lit.: D.C.R., Bull, XXIII (1929), 38 (repr.), 40. 

Attributed to Rembrandt by Dr. Valentiner and dated by him 1633-5- Compare the 
motif in the painting by B. Fabritius, No. 15 of the present exhibit. 

28. FIGURES IN A DOORWAY 

Pen on paper, 9% x 7 in. 

Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Jacob de Vos, Jr. 

Lit.: Lippmann, No. 25 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1194; 
Lilienfeld, No. 38 (repr.); Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 779 (repr.). 

Valentiner dates it about 1636. 

29. SASKIA IN BED 

Pen and wash on paper, 7 x 9jV ni - 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Van Suchtelen; Remy van Haanen; H. Lang-Larisch; Hof- 
stede de Groot, The Hague. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, May-June, 1908, No. 399; 
Municipal Museum, Amsterdam, August 25-September 14, 1913, 
No. 73; Municipal Museum, Leyden, April 11-May 10, 1916. 

Lit. : H. de Groot Hand., No. 1299; Lippmann-Hofstede de Groot, 
No. 96 (repr.); W. R. Valentiner, Jabrbucb fur Kunstwissenscbaft, 
1923, PI. Ill, 177-8; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 697 (repr.). 

About 1636. Compare a drawing in the collection of Mr. Paul J. Sachs, Cambridge, 
Mass. (Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 696). 

30. TWO STUDIES OF SASKIA IN BED 

Pen and wash, 5/4 x 6^4 in. 

Inscribed: rymsdyck's m. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: Rymsdyck; Tighe; C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

[ 38] 



Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1908, No. 415 (repr.); Palace 
of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 1920, No. 367; Albright Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, January, 1935, No. 50 (repr. in cat.); Fogg Art Museum, 
Cambridge, Mass., May, 1935- 

Lit.: Murray-Morgan, No. 180 and PL 180; Hind, /{., 49 and PI. 
XXVI; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 690. 

About 1636-8. 

31. STUDY FOR AN "ADORATION OF THE MAGI" 

Pen on paper, 7 x 6/ 6 - in. 

Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Van Suchtelen; Remy van Haanen; H. Lang-Larisch, 1900; 
Hofstede de Groot, The Hague. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, May-June, 1908, No. 339; 
Municipal Museum, Amsterdam, August 25-September 14, 1913; 
Municipal Museum, Leyden, April 11-May 10, 1916. 

Lit.: Lippmann-Hofstede de Groot, No. 92 (repr.); H. de Groot, 
Hand., No. 1268; F. Becker, Handle ichnun gen Holl. Meister aus der 
Sammlung Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot im Haag, 1923, No. 29 and PI. 29; 
Valentiner, Hand., I, No. 302 (repr.). 

Valentiner dates it about 1637, rejecting Hofstede de Groot's suggestion that it is con- 
nected with the painting of the same subject in Buckingham Palace, dated 1657. 

32. CHRIST APPEARING TO MARY MAGDALENE 

Pen on paper, 5rt x "7jV in- 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam 

Coll.: P. van Huls (Sale, 1736); Habich; Hofstede de Groot, The 
Hague. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, May-June, 1908, No. 363; 
Municipal Museum, Amsterdam, August 25-September 14, 1913, 
No. 34; Municipal Museum, Leyden, April 11-May 10, 1916, No. 
25. 

Lit.: Lippmann, No. 98 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1275; 
W. Weisbach, Rembrandt, 1926, 215; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 507 

(repr.). 

Valentiner connects this drawing and his No. 508 with a painting in Buckingham 
Palace (Valentiner, 185), dated 1638. 

33. OLD GATE IN SUNSHINE 

Pen and wash on paper, 5/^ x 7^ in. 

Inscribed (in a later hand): 's Ian Rodenpoorts — poortje te Am- 
sterdam, Rembrandt fecit. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

[39] 



Coll. : de Kat; Jacob de Vos, Sr. ; Jacob de Vos, Jr. 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1932, No. 261. 

Lit. : H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1211; Lippmann-Hofstede de Groot, 
No. 79 (repr.); Lilienfeld, No. 55 (repr.). 

About 1641. 

34. THE ANGEL APPEARING TO PETER IN PRISON 

Pen and wash of two tones on paper, 6j4 x 6yi in. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Lord Aylesford; J. C. Robinson; Thos. Agnew and Sons, 
Lond., 1901; Hofstede de Groot, The Hague. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, May-June, 1908, No. 367; 
Municipal Museum, Amsterdam, August 25-September 14, 1913, 
No. 36; Municipal Museum, Leyden, April 11-May 10, 1916; Ryks- 
museum, Amsterdam, June 11-September 4, 1932, No. 230. 

Lit.: Lippmann, No. 39 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1277; F. 
Becker, Handle ichnun gen Holl. Meister aus der Sammlung Dr. C. Hof- 
stede de Groot im Haag, 1923, No. 40 and PL 40; Valentiner, Hand., 
II, No. 546 (repr.). 

Valentiner dates it about 1645- Schmidt-Degener, 1633 and believes that certain 
touches were added later. 

35- THE BLINDNESS OF TOBIT 

Pen and wash on paper, 6J4> x 9y% in- 
Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: Warwick; Greville; C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Exh.: Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass., 1917; The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, N. Y., 1918; Palace of the Fine Arts, San 
Francisco, February-March, 1920, No. 369 (repr. in cat.); Albright 
Art Gallery, Buffalo, January, 1935, No. 52 (repr. in cat.). 

Lit. : H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1078; Murray-Morgan, No. 183 and 
PI. 183; Valentiner, Hand., I, No. 221. 

Valentiner considers the gray wash probably not by Rembrandt's hand. He dates the 
drawing c. 1645. 

36. DRAWBRIDGE OVER A WIDE RIVER 

Pen and wash on paper, 6J4, x 9yi in. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Jacob de Vos, Sr. 

Lit.: H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1212; Lilienfeld, No. 56 (repr.). 

The subtect is the bridge at Ouderkerk near Amsterdam on the Amstel River. Drawn 
about 1645. 

[40] 



37. ROAD THROUGH THE DUNES WITH VIEW OF A WIDE 
PLAIN 

Pen and wash on paper, 5^i x 1$4 in. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Lantsheer; W. Pitcairn Knowles. 

Lit.: Lippmann, No. 22 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1205; 
Lilienfeld, No. 49 (repr.). 

About 1645. 

38. SUSANNA AND THE TWO ELDERS 

Pen and wash on paper, 7rf x "7^8 in. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Beels van Heemstede. 

Lit.: H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1167; Lilienfeld, No. 11 (repr.); 
Valentiner, Hand., I, No. 262 (repr.). 

About 1647. Valentiner connects it with the painting of the same subject by Rem- 
brandt in Berlin (Valentiner, 289), dated 1647. 

39. THE DEPARTURE OF TOBIAS 

Pen and wash on paper, 6 x 10 l /2 in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: Lord Z(S)omers (?); R. Houlditch; Thos. Hudson; Sir 
Joshua Reynolds; Reveley; J. C. Robinson; C. Fairfax Murray, 
Lond. 

Lit.: H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1099; Murray-Morgan, No. 193 and 
PL 193; Valentiner, Hand., I, No. 230 (repr.). 

Valentiner dates it about 1648. He notes a copy in the Fodor Museum, Amsterdam. 

40. ELIEZER AND REBECCA AT THE WELL 

Pen and wash on paper 8 x 12^ in. 

Lent by Mr. Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania. 

Coll.: Earl of Warwick; Thos. Halstead; Duveen Brothers, N. Y. 

Lit.: Valentiner, Hand., I, No. 54 (repr.); H. Comstock, Interna- 
tional Studio, LXXXV (December, 1926), 32 (repr.) and 35. 

Valentiner dates it, 1650-55- He notes a copy in Weimar. 

41. JUDAS LEAVING THE HIGH PRIEST 

Pen and wash on paper, 6J4> x 9}i in. 

Inscribed (on back): Dessin garanti original de Rembrandt: 

pensee de la gravure la Synagogue, E. Jullienne expert. 12 Rue 

Saigner. 

Lent by Mr. Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania. 

[41 ] 



Coll.: Marsden J. Perry, Providence; Duveen Brothers, N. Y. 

Exh.: Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, January, 1935, No. 54 (repr. 
in cat.). 

Lit.: Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 464 (repr.). 

Valentiner considers the wash to be partly by another hand. He notes a copy in the 
Hofstede de Groot Sale, Leipzig, Nov. 4, 1931, showing more of the architecture on 
the right, which has been cut away in the original. He dates it about 1655. 

42. CHRIST WASHING THE DISCIPLES' FEET 

Pen and wash, 6% x 8% in. 

Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

About 1655. 

43. YOUNG MAN PULLING A ROPE 

Pen and wash on paper, llxV x 7 in- 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : M. von Heyl zu Herrnsheim, Stuttgart (Sale, May 25, 1903); 
C. Hofstede de Groot, The Hague. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, May-June 1908, No. 376; 
Municipal Museum, Amsterdam, August 25-September 14, 1913, 
No. 30; Municipal Museum, Leyden, April 11-May 19, 1916, No. 
94; Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, June 11-September 4, 1932, No. 325 
(repr. in cat.). 

Lit.: H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1280; Valentiner, U Art Flatnand et 
Hollandais , VII (1907), 237; Lippmann-Hofstede de Groot, No. 92; 
J. Meder, Die Hand%eichnungen, 1919, 61; F. Becker, Handle ichnun- 
gen Holl. Meister aus der Sammlung Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot im Haag, 
1923, No. 41 and PI. 41; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 480 (repr.). 

Study for the right hand (igure in "The Scourging of Christ" in the Museum of Darm- 
stadt, dated 1668 CValentiner, 471, left) but Valentiner relates it to the style of the 
mid-fifties. 

44. THE PREACHING OF ST. MARK IN VENICE 

Pen and wash on paper, 8 x iyi in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Lit.: Hofstede de Groot, Jahrbuch der Preuss. Kunstsamml., XV 
(1894), 177 (repr.); H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1084; Murray-Mor- 
gan, No. 193 and PI. 193; Valentiner, Hand., II, No. 622 and p. 
409. 

A copy by Rembrandt of a drawing attributed to Lattanzio da Rimini (Venetian, close 
follower of Giovanni Bellini) now in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire, Chats- 
worth House. See Valentiner, supra, fot discussion. He dates the drawing about 1656. 

[42] 



45. STUDY OF A NUDE WOMAN LYING DOWN 

Pen and wash on paper, 5? 8 x 11)4 in- 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Sir Thos. Lawrence, Lond., 1835; Woodburn, Lond.; Wm. 
Esdaile, Lond., 1840; R. P. Roupell, Lond., 1887; J. P. Heseltine, 
Lond. (Sale, Amsterdam, May 27, 1913, No. 22 and PI. 22.) 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, June 11-September 11, 1932, No. 
336. 

Lit.: Lippmann, No. 87 (repr.); W. R. Yalentiner, Rembrandt und 
seine U?ngebung, 1905, 46; H. de Groot, Hand., No. 1032; Lilienfeld, 
No. 45a (repr.). 

About 1660. The model was probably Hendrickje. 
N. B. For further Rembrandt drawings see p. 51. 

FERDINAND BOL 

BOL'S drawings, rapidly drawn and vigorously washed, have often 
been confused with Rembrandt's but in general they lack his 
great surety of touch and contain a number of structureless, unsys- 
tematic lines. At their best they are infused with a sentiment some- 
times deepening into a dramatic presentation that accords well with 
his painting. 

46. PORTRAIT OF REMBRANDT 

Crayon, red chalk and wash on paper, iyi x 5/4 in. 
Lent by Mr. LessingJ. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 

Coll. : Campe. 

This interesting drawing is apparently based on Rembrandt's "Self Portrait" in the 
National Gallery, Lond., dated 1640 (Valentiner, 242). There are a number of drawings 
by Rembrandt pupils that repeat painted compositions by the master and it is supposed 
that careful copies of this sort formed part of their training. See also the Rembrandt 
etching of 1639 (B. 21). 

Bol painted himself several times in a very similar pose. See 

1. Dordrecht (1646). 

2. Alte Pinakothek, Munich (after 1653?) (A weaker replica, ex coll.: C. T. Yerkes, 
1910 and Ambrose Monell, 1930). 

3. T. B. Walker Collection, Minneapolis. 

4. A. Schloss, Paris. 

5. Formerly, Knoedler, Lond. (c. 1647). 

6. Formerly, Max Rothschild, Lond. (c. 1648). 

The Bol etching of 1645 (B. 11) bears some connection. 

47. JACOB PRESENTED TO PHARAOH BY JOSEPH 

Red and black chalk and wash on paper, 10^- x 10^. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll.: Verstolk van Soelen, 1847; Leembruggen, 1866; Jac. de Vos 
Jr., 1883. 

[43] 



Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, July-October, 1935, No. 73. 
Lit.: Moes, Drawings in Amsterdam, PI. 12. 

A study for the painting in Dresden. 

GERBRAND VAN DEN EECKHOUT 

BORN, Amsterdam, 1621. Died there, 1674. Pupil of Rembrandt 
about 1635-40. Van den Eeckhout is known for his figure stud- 
ies, which are close to Rembrandt in their skillful atmospheric ef- 
fects, and in their broad and often delicate use of wash. His landscape 
drawings, of which "The Artist before a Peasant House" is probably 
a later example, show his personal development out of his master's 
style, and are far more happy than many of his historical and Biblical 
scenes. 

48. THE ARTIST BEFORE A PEASANT HOUSE 

Pen and wash on paper, 6}i x %y& in. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Verstolk van Soelen, 1847; Leembruggen, 1866; Jac. de Vos, 
Jr., 1883. 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, July-October, 1935, No. 15- 

Lit.: Moes, Drawings in Amsterdam, PI. 30. 

Reproduced in crayon method by Cornelis Ploos van Amstel (1721-1798). 

ARENT DE GELDER 

UNTIL recently no drawings of de Gelder were definitely linked 
with pictures by him, and such examples as bore his name were 
like the present "Degradation of Haman" associated rather by a 
certain Baroque richness of subject than by similarities of technique. 
Lately, however, Dr. Valentiner {Hand., II, xxxv-xl) has convinc- 
ingly grouped together a series of drawings which show de Gelder 
patterning his approach upon Rembrandt's later broad and painter- 
like manner, but carried out in a less secure and weaker line, with 
contours loose and unprecise and few shadows but a general per- 
vading sense of light. 

49. THE DEGRADATION OF HAMAN 

Pen and wash on paper, 7r§- x 6 I 2 g - in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Charles Deering Collec- 
tion). 

Coll. : Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Exh. : Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art Institute of Chicago, 1933, No. 
895. 

[44] 



Lit.: D. C. R., Bull, XXIII (1929), 53 55 (repr.) as de Gelder. 

Dr. K. Lilienfeld assigns it to G. W. Horst. 

50. JOSEPH'S BLOODY COAT BEING SHOWN TO JACOB 

Pen and wash on paper, 4^4 x 1-f^ in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Charles Deering Collec- 
tion). 

Coll.: Philip Moore (1856). 

Exh. : Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art Institute of Chicago, 1933, No. 
813 as Rembrandt. 

Lit.: D. C. R., Bull, XXIII (1929), 40 (repr.) 41 as Rembrandt; 
Valentiner, Hand., II., xxxiv, xxv (repr.) as de Gelder. 

Originally attributed to Rembrandt by Dr. Valentiner but now given to de Gelder. 

Compare a series of drawings by Rembrandt of the same subject published by Valen- 
tiner, Hand., I, Nos. 95-102, especially No. 102, dating from 1660 65. 



SAMUEL VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

BORN, Dordrecht, 1627. Died there, 1678. Son of a minor artist. 
Valentiner suggests that he must have come into Rembrandt's 
studio in 1641 and that he remained with the master until about 
1648. His early work is closely connected with Rembrandt's style of 
the forties; later he traveled widely and submitted to various influ- 
ences, finally to become interested in problems of perspective (com- 
pare the "Peep-Show" in the National Gallery, Lond.). Van Hoog- 
straten's genre painting and later portraits are dull and uninspired. 
He was a poet, an art critic and a teacher (Arent de Gelder studied 
first with him) and etched as well as painted. His early drawings 
display Rembrandt motifs and technique, but are handled with little 
dramatic implication, in a line that frequently stumbles and with 
broad wash that often creates pattern rather than space and atmos- 
phere. 

51. THE UNBELIEVING THOMAS 

Pen, red and black chalk and wash on paper, 8 x 10^2 in. 
Signed: 41. S. v. Hoogstraten fee. 
Lent by The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

Coll. : Alfred Boreel, The Hague (Sale, F. Muller and Co., Amster- 
dam, June 15-18, 1908, No. 287 [repr. opp. 52]). 

Exh.: Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam, July-October, 1935, No. 83- 

Lit.: M. D. Henkel, Le Dessin Hollandais des Origines au XVII 
Suck, 1931, 82, 127 and PI. LXIV; W. R. Valentiner, Art in 
America, XVIII (1930), 141-2. 

[45] 



A painting by van Hoogstraten, formerly in the SomoffColl., St. Petersburg and later 
in the collection of the Countess de la Beraudiere (Sale, N. Y., Dec. 12, 1930, No. 282, 
repr. in cat.), dated 1649, is closely related. 

Compare the painting by Rembrandt in the Hermitage, dated 1634 (Valentiner, 159). 
Valentiner (Art in America, XVIII [1930], 141-2) notes its likeness to Rembrandt's 
etching of 1650 (B. 89) and assumes that van Hoogstraten may here have been working 
from a lost drawing by the master, 

52. JACOB AND ESAU 

Pen and wash on paper, 3 -ft- x 6 in. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Charles Deering Collec- 
tion). 

Exh. : Cent, of Prog. Exh., The Art Institute of Chicago, 1933, No. 
809. 

Lit.: D. C. R., Bull., XXIII (1929), 53, 60 (repr.). 

Tentatively assigned to van Hoogstraten by Dr. Valentiner. 

53. THE ANNUNCIATION 

Pen and wash on paper, 6% x 6ft in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: Wm. Esdaile; R. P. Roupell; C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Lit.: Murray-Morgan, No. 215 and PI. 215 as Eeckhout. 

Dr. Valentiner: "Probably by Samuel van Hoogstraten." 

PHILIPS DE KONINCK 

IN addition to his remarkable series of landscape drawings, de 
Koninck made sketches of genre and Biblical subjects. Typical of 
his style are the broad, slashing strokes of pen, the elongated figures, 
and the lack of space and plasticity. 

54. CHRIST AND HIS DISCIPLES 

Pen and wash on paper, 6^ x 6 in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll.: Geddes; C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Lit.: Murray-Morgan, No. 221 and PI. 221. 

55. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY 

Pen and wash on paper, 5^i x 7ft in. 
Inscribed (in a later hand): 't vrouwtien in overspel. 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago (Charles Deering Collec- 
tion). 

Coll.: Thos. Agnew & Sons, Lond., 1920; C. Hofstede de Groot 
(Sale, Leipzig, Nov. 4, 1931, No. 130 and PI. IX). 

[ 46 ] 



Exh.: The Hague, 1930. 

Lit. : F. Becker, Hand%etchnun^en Hall. Meister ans der Sammlun^ 
Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot im Haag, 1923, No. 22 and PI. 22. 

Becker compares it with two drawings in the Print Room in Dresden. 
On the subject see No. 13 exhibited here. 



NICOLAES MAES 

AS a draughtsman, Maes was broad, summary, and direct and in 
£*- certain early pen-and-wash drawings, very close to Rembrandt. 
He also executed a number of attractive sketches in red chalk, some 
of them finished with considerable care. Neither of the two drawings 
shown here can be connected with definite works and are tentatively 
assigned . 



56. AN OLD WOMAN SEATED WITH A BOOK ON HER KNEE 
Pen and wash with red chalk on paper, 5 if x 5^8 in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 
Coll.: Aylesford; C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 
Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1908, No. 398. 
Lit. Murray-Morgan, No. 194 and PL 194. 

The Museum at Gotha is said to own a similar drawing. 

Attributed to Rembrandt by Murray but related to subjects of domestic life done by 
Maes during the late fifties. 

57. A WOMAN SEATED ASLEEP IN A CHAIR 

Pen and wash on paper, 1J4, x 6 in. 

Lent by The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City. 

Coll. : Lord Palmerston; Sir J. C. Robinson; C. Hofstede de Groot; 
C. Fairfax Murray, Lond. 

Exh.: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1908, No. 406 (repr.). 

Ltt.: Murray-Morgan, No. 199 and PL 199; H. de Groot, Hand., 
No. 1107. 

Attributed to Rembrandt by Hofstede de Groot. 

Compare a series of drawings attributed to Maes by Valentiner in Nicolaes Maes, 1924, 
especially PI. 30. 



[47] 



REMBRANDT PUPILS BY SUCCESSIVE 
"GENERATIONS"* 

Leyden Pupils 

Jan Lievens (collaborator) (1607-1674); Gerrit Dou (1613-1675); 
Jan Joris van Vliet (c.1610); Isaac de Jouderville (1613-1645/48); 
Jacques des Rousseaux (d. before March 1638); Jacob van Spreeuwen. 

Influenced by Rembrandt's Leyden style: Cornells Brouwer (d. 
1681); Paulus Lesire (1611-1656?) 

Transitional period (Leyden- Amsterdam): Willem de Poorter 
(1608-1648?) 

Amsterdam Pupils 

First pupil here: Jacob Adriaensz. Backer (1608-1651) 

First Generation (c. 1632-1635): 
Ferdinand Bol (1616-1680); Govaert Flinck (1615-1660); Jan 
Victors (c. 1620-1676); Abraham van den Hecke(fr.l655 in London); 
Reinier van Gherwen (d.1662); Gerrit Willemsz. Horst (c.1612- 
1652); Jacob van Dorsten (d.1674) 

Second Generation (c. 1635-1640): 

Philips Koninck (1619-1688); Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (1621- 
1674); Leendert Cornelisz. van Beyeren (c. 1620-1649). 

Influenced by Rembrandt's style of the '30s: Salomon Koninck 
(1609-1656): Claes Cornelisz. Moeyaert (1592/3-1655); Pieter 
Jansz. Quast (1606-1647); Jacob Willemsz. de Wet (c. 1610-1671?); 
Leonhard Bramer (1596-1674); Peter Rottermond (1639); Benjamin 
Gerritsz. Cuyp (1612-1652) 

Third Generation (first half of '40s): 

Carel Fabritius (1624-1654); Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627- 
1678); Abraham Furnerius (c.1621); Lambert Doomer (c. 1622/3- 
1700); Jiirgen Ovens (1623-1678); Christoph Paudiss (c. 1618-1666/ 
67); Bernhard Keil (1624-1687); Franz Wulfhagen (n.d.); Johannes 
Spilberg (1619-1690). 

Fourth Generation (second half of '40s): 

Nicolaes Maes (1632-1693); Barent Fabritius (d.1672?); Karel van 
der Pluym (1625-1672); Johann Ulrich Mair (1630-1704); Heinrich 
Jansen (1625-1667); Michael Willmann (1630-1706). 

Influenced by Rembrandt's style of the '40s: Roeland Roghman 
(c. 1620-1686); Pieter Harmensz. Verelst (c. 1618-1668?); Hendrik 
Martensz. Sorgh (c. 1611-1670). 

*From Otto Benesch, Rembrandt Werk und Forscbung, 1935, pp. 70-71. 

[48] 



Fifth Generation ('50s): 

Constantijn Renesse (1626-1680); Willem Drost (n.d.); Abraham 
van Dyck (1635/6-1672); Heyman Dullaert (1636-1684); Jacobus 
Levecq (d. 1675); Jan van Glabbeeck (c. 1634-1686?); Titus van Rijn 
(1641-1668); Jacob Koninck I (1610/15-1690); Pieter de With 
(active 1659). 

Influenced by Rembrandt's style of the '50s: Carel van Savov (act. 
1649-1664) 

Pupils of the '60s: 

Aert de Gelder (1645-1727); Gottfried Kneller (1646-1723); Jo- 
hannes Leupennis (1647/8-1693) 



[49] 




58. REMBRANDT A PORTRAIT STUDY OF A BEARDED MAN IN A FUR COAT 

Mrs. Lessing J . Rosemvald, Philadelphia 



[ 50] 



REMBRANDT DRAWINGS 

FROM THE COLLECTION OF 

MR. AND MRS. LESSING J. ROSENWALD 

(Not included in the Chicago Exhibition) 

58. A PORTRAIT STUDY OF A BEARDED MAN IN A FUR 
COAT 

Red with touches of black chalk. 5% x 7iV m - 
Lent by Mrs. Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 
Coll.: Fairfax Murray; Mrs. Beatrice Bateson. 
Exh.: London — Burlington House, 192.9, No. 578. 
Lit.: Vasari Society, Second Series, 1928, IX, PI. 11; Sale Cata- 
logue, Sothebys' April 23 24, 1929, No. 228. 

59. STUDY OF A SEATED ACTOR WITH FEATHERED HAT 

Pen on paper, 734 x 5 iJ m - 

Sketch of man's head on reverse. 

Lent by Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 

Coll.: Edward Bouvere, 1764 1858. Reproduced in an article on 
Rembrandt's Drawings of Actors by W. R. Valentiner in 
"Zeitschrift fur bilden den Kunst," 1925-26. 

60. SELF PORTRAIT IN CRAYON (sec cover illustration) 

Red crayon on paper, 53/§ x 4f| i n - 

Lent by Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 

61. LANDSCAPE WITH COTTAGE AND BARN 

Pen and wash on paper, 4yq x 7tV i n - 

Lent by Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 

62. BEGGAR WOMAN 

Pen and wash on paper, 5y% x 4xi i n - 

Valentiner certificate. 

Lent by Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 

63. LANDSCAPE AT THE DIEMERDEICH 

Pen and wash on paper, 33^2 x 8jf i n - 

Lent by Lessing J. Rosenwald, Philadelphia. 



[51 ] 







c^ 



^Okfe&tT 52 



On 

O 



[52] 



ETCHINGS 



REMBRANDT VAN RUN 

REMBRANDT, more than any previous artist, understood the 
- true potentialities of etching as a medium for full expression of 
a wide range of subjects. In his hands it became a completely flexible 
thing and lie seems to have had a most remarkable instinctive com- 
prehension of the varied capabilities of the medium, for he inherited 
no great legacy in the conventions of etching from those who went 
before him. More often than not, he chose and manipulated exactly 
the proper line texture for his subject, both in regard to composition 
and balance, and to spiritual meaning and inner content. 

Too often the painter-etcher uses his print making as a means of 
advertising and circulating his paintings. A paucity of ideas and in- 
spiration drives him to repeat on the copper plate the same composi- 
tions which he has successfully achieved on canvas. Rembrandt was 
not guilty of this practice; out of some three hundred plates credited 
to him*, only six correspond in any way to the subjects of his paint- 
ings and only three or four depend directly upon the work of other 
men. Etching in his hands was a thing apart, even the early open line 
compositions, which are as free as drawings in their spontaneous 
flow and freedom from mannerisms, are far more than drawings trans- 
ferred to copper; there is evident in them a particular use of the bitten 
line which is very different from the rhythm of a pen drawing or the 
boldness of a wash. 

Except in the case of the portraits, which were the only commis- 
sioned plates Rembrandt did, his compositions were built up from 
casual subjects close at hand. At first small sketches of the life around 
him, beggars, peasants, mountebanks, Saskia and his own figure, 
unpretentious and unmannered scenes but full of sympathy and an 
amazing understanding of the medium. Later, pure etching did not 
quite satisfy the artist and he began to use drypoint as an aid to rich- 
ness and contrast. In the end, however, he returned again to pure 
etching and resorted to printed tone (leaving ink on the plate in cer- 
tain places to spread a thin wash of tone and gain effects of depth). 

Rembrandt went far beyond van Dyck in his interpretation of the 
individual and his portraits are full of subtle insight into character. 
In them, because they were commissioned pieces, the artist con- 
formed more to a desire for approval than in any other of his plates, 
but never did he sacrifice truth for flattery. 

The landscapes are a small portion of his entire work, but in them 
he exercised a more profound influence on posterity than in any other 
one group. The paintings reveal a marked leaning toward Italian 
conventions of landscape but quite the opposite is true for most of 

*A. M. Hind lists 303 etchings in his catalogue, with some of them doubtful but not 
sufficiently so to warrant exclusion. Singer allows about 140, Legros 71, and Seymour 
Haden even fewer. 

[53] 



the etchings. Here the country is that of Holland, with wide pas- 
tures, canals and the clear, far distances of a flat, wet land. He etched 
direct from nature and in so doing captured much more than a mere 
representation; he grasped the essential character and atmosphere of 
the very place. 

Though he contributed tremendously to the art of portraiture and 
even more to the development of landscape, it is in religious compo- 
sition that the complete Rembrandt is most fully revealed. The artist 
must have learned the Bible very thoroughly from his pious mother 
for all through his life Biblical subjects remained his favorites and in 
etching as well as in painting he composed and recomposed the same 
scenes again and again. Whether one consider the magnificent com- 
positions of light and shade, the "Hundred Guilder" (H. 236) and 
the "Three Crosses" (H. 270) or the open line "Return of the Prodi- 
gal Son" (H. 147), one must wonder at the religious power, the ten- 
derness and poignancy which pervades his work and realize that 
these prints will live forever as great art and great truth. 

Clarissa D. Flint 

The following group of sixty-seven etchings from the collection 
of Mr. Lessing J. Rosenwald of Philadelphia has been selected by 
him for their excellent quality as well as their comprehensive 
representation of Rembrandt's development as an etcher. 

The numbers used refer to Hind's A Catalogue of Rembrandt Etchings, 
Methuen and Company, Ltd., London, 1923 (revised edition). This 
catalogue includes all of the known Rembrandt etchings. 



LIST OF ETCHINGS FROM THE 

ROSENWALD COLLECTION 

9. BEGGAR LEANING ON A STICK, FACING LEFT. 

15- BEGGAR IN HIGH CAP STANDING AND LEANING ON 
A STICK— 2nd state. 

29. SELF-PORTRAIT IN A FUR CAP AND FUR COAT— 2nd 
state. 

52. REMBRANDT'S MOTHER SEATED AT A TABLE, LOOK- 
ING RIGHT— 2nd state. 

69. HEAD OF AN OLD MAN IN A HIGH FUR CAP— 4th state. 

80. OLD BEGGAR WOMAN WITH A GOURD— 2nd state. 

86. BUST OF BALD MAN, LOOKING DOWN GRINNING- 
lst state. 

92. OLD MAN WITH LARGE WHITE BEARD AND FUR CAP 
— 2nd state (a). 

109. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH A SWORD— 2nd state. 

[ 54] 



110. REMBRANDT WITH PLUMED CAP AND LOWERED 
SABRE— 2nd state. 

112. SASKIA— REMBRANDT'S WIFE. 

121. CHRIST AT EMMAUS (smaller plate). 

122. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA— 2nd state. 
127. GREAT JEWISH BRIDE— 4th state. 

134. YOUNG MAN IN MEZETIN CAP— 2nd state. 

136. BALD-HEADED OLD MAN WITH SHORT BEARD -1st 
state. 

142. TRAVELLING MUSICIANS— 1st state. 

144. REMBRANDT AND HIS WIFE— 1st state. 

147. RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON. 

150. BEARDED MAN WEARING VELVET CAP AND JEWEL 
CLASP. 

154. SMALL JEWISH BRIDE. 

156. SELF-PORTRAIT WITH VELVET CAP AND PLUME WITH 
AN EMBROIDERED DRESS— Bust. 

162. THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE— 2nd state. 

163- SHEET OF STUDIES WITH A WOMAN LYING ILL IN 
BED. 

165- DEATH APPEARING TO A WEDDED COUPLE FROM 
AN OPEN GRAVE. 

169. OLD MAN SHADING HIS EYES WITH HAND— 1st state. 

173. CHRIST CRUCIFIED BETWEEN TWO THIEVES— 1st state. 

176. VIEW OF AMSTERDAM— 2nd state. 

177- LANDSCAPE WITH COTTAGE AND DUTCH HAYBARN. 

178. LANDSCAPE WITH COTTAGE AND LARGE TREE. 

179. THE WINDMILL. 

198. THE RAISING OF LAZARUS (smaller plate)— 1st state. 

202. STUDENT BY CANDLELIGHT— 3rd state. 

203. A COTTAGE WITH WHITE PALINGS— 1st state. 
205- THREE TREES. 

209. SIX'S BRIDGE— 3rd state. 

213. LANDSCAPE WITH AN ARTIST SKETCHING. 
227. JAN ASSELYN— 2nd state. 
229. SELF-PORTRAIT DRAWING— 4th state. 

[ 55 ] 



232. ST. JEROME BESIDE A POLLARD WILLOW— 2nd state. 

233- BEGGARS AT THE DOOR OF A HOUSE— 1st state. 

234. JEWS IN SYNAGOGUE— 2nd state. 

236. CHRIST WITH THE SICK AROUND HIM, RECEIVING 
LITTLE CHILDREN— The "Hundred Guilder Print,"— 2nd 
state. 

241. LANDSCAPE WITH HAY-BARN AND FLOCK OF SHEEP. 

242. LANDSCAPE WITH THE MAN CARRYING MILK PAILS 
— 2nd state. 

244. LANDSCAPE WITH A RUINED TOWER AND CLEAR 
FOREGROUND— 4th state. 

245- A VILLAGE WITH A SQUARE TOWER ARCHED— 3rd 
state. 

246. LANDSCAPE WITH THREE GABLED COTTAGES— 3rd 
state. 

251. CLEMENT DE JONGHE— 3rd state. 

252. BLIND TOBIT. 

253- THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT— 1st state. 

256. CHRIST PREACHING. 

260. DR. FAUSTUS (Trial Proof). 

264. LANDSCAPE WITH A ROAD BESIDE A CANAL. 

270. THE THREE CROSSES— 3rd state. 

273. THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS (with the Lamp) 
— 1st state. 

274. THE CIRCUMCISION— 1st state. 

277- CHRIST SEATED DISPUTING WITH DOCTORS— 1st state. 

278. CHRIST BETWEEN HIS PARENTS RETURNING FROM 
THE TEMPLE. 

279. PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE. 

281. THE ENTOMBMENT— 2nd state. 

282. CHRIST AT EMMAUS— larger plate— 1st state. 

290. JAN LUTMA— THE ELDER, GOLDSMITH AND SCULP- 
TOR — 1st state. 

293. THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN. 

300. THE GREAT COPPENOL— 3rd state. 

301. PETER AND JOHN AT THE GATE OF THE TEMPLE- 
2nd state. 

[ 56 ] 




3- REMBRANDT 



ELIZABETH GERRITSZ. VAN RIJN 
Mr. Robert Treat Vaine II, Boston 



[57] 




4. REMBRANDT 



YOUNG GIRL AT AN OPEN HALF-DOOR 

The Art Institute of Chicago 



{ 58] 




10. REMBRANDT 



LUCRETIA 



The Minneapolis Institute of Arts 



[59] 




1. REMBRANDT HARMEN GERRITSZ. VAN RIJN (rEMBRANDt's FATHER) 

The Art Institute of Chicago 



[60] 




9- REMBRANDT PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN 

The Honorable Alvan T. Fuller, Boston 



[61 ] 




22. NICOLAES MAES 



AN OLD WOMAN AT PRAYER 

The Worcester Art Muse//?// 



[64] 




21. JAN LIEVENS (?) OLD WOMAN READING 

The Trustee of the John G. Johnson Collection, Philadelphia 



[65] 




12. WILLEM DROST 



THE SIBYL 



The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 



[ 66 




11. FERDINAND BOL 

Jacques Seligmann and Co., Inc., New York 



SASKIA 



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The Art Institute of Chicago 



[71 ] 




43- REMBRANDT YOUNG MAN PULLING A ROPE 

The Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam 



[ 72 ] 




25- REMBRANDT WOMAN CARRYING A CHILD DOWNSTAIRS 

The Pierpont Morgan Library , New York City 



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